Juniperus chinensis (Cupressaceae) is a valuable woody plant resource, but this rare plant is only distributed in restricted regions in Korea. In this study, we surveyed the geographic distribution regions, variation of sex ratio and the dynamics of natural populations of J. chinensis. in order to establish conservation strategies for the sustainable conservation of this important resource tree. The 17 natural populations of J. chinensis are restrictively distributed in the shore cliffs of (1) Ulleungdo island, (2) Gyeongju-si to Gangneung-si of the eastern coast, the riverside cliff along (3) Donggang-river of Jungsun-gun and Pyeongchang-gun and (4) branch of Nakdonggang-river in Uiseong-gun. The populations in Ulleungdo island showed continuous population distribution of over 200 individuals, but populations in other regions had discontinuous population distribution of under 200. The population of J. chinensis surveyed in Korea was estimated in ca. 3,200 individuals. The sex ratio (male/female) among populations of J. chinensis was diverse with variation from 0.46~1.67 range, but showed no significance. The sex ratio of the total individuals by species level was 0.74, and the percentage of female tree was significantly higher than the male. The results of dynamics analysis within population among regions showed that seedlings and saplings of J. chinensis in three regions surveyed were continuously regenerating. The distribution of DBH class showed a stable population structure of inverse J shape graph, but fragmentation and decrease in populations because of invading broad-leaved shrubs and trees from the surroundings were concerned. Further studies, and in situ and ex situ conservation strategies for the sustainable conservation on natural populations of this rare resources woody plant, J. chinensis in Korea are recommended.
Adams, R.P. 2011. Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus: 3rd Edition, Trafford Publishin, Bloomington, USA. pp. 1-436.
Ahmed, M., S.S., Shaukat and A.H., Buzdar. 1990. Population structure and dynamics of Juniperus excelsa in Balouchistan. Journal of Vegetation Science 1(2):271-276.
Atta, M.S., M. Ahmed, A. Ahmed, L. Tareen and S.U. Jan. 2012. The ecology and dynamics of Juniperus excelsa forest in Balochistan-Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(5): 1617-1625.
Auken, O.W.V., J.T. Jackson and P.N. Jurena. 2004. Survival and growth of Juniperus seedlings in Juniperus woodlands. Plant Ecology 175:245-257.
Ban, Y.B. 2005. Geography of Korea-Gyeongsang-do-, National Geographic Information Institute. pp. 1-633 (in Korean).
Ban, Y.B. and J.H. Nam. 1997. 2nd natural environment survey in Korea, Ministry of Environment. pp. 1-416 (in Korean).
Beasley, R.S. and J.O. Klemmedson. 1973. Recognizing site adversity and drought-sensitive trees in stands of bristle cone pine (Pinus longaeva). Econ. Bot. 27:141-146.
Billington, H.L. 1991. Effect of population size on genetic variation in a dioecious conifer. Conservation Biology 5(1):115-119.
Booth, B.D. and D.W. Larson. 2000. Constraints on the assembly of cliff communities at the seedling stage. Ecoscience 7:336-344.
Chang, N.K., Y.P. Kim, I.H. Oh and Y.H. Son. 1997. Past vegetation of moor in Mt. Daeam in terms of the pollen analysis. Journal of Ecology and Environment 10(4):195-205 (in Korean).
Choi, C.Y., H.Y. Nam, I.J. Won, G.C. Bing, S.Y. Cho, G.P. Hong and H.Y. Chae. 2011. Migration and habitat use of breeding blue rock thrushes on Hongdo Island, Korea. The Ornithological Society of Korea 18(1):17-33.
Ellstrand, N.C. and D.R. Elam. 1993. Population genetic consequences of small population size: implications for plant conservation. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 24:217-242.
Hilfiker, K., F. Gugerli, J.P. Schütz, P. Rotach and R. Holderegger. 2004. Low RAPD variation and female-biased sex ratio indicate genetic drift in small populations of the dioecious conifer Taxus baccata in Switzerland. Conservation Genetics 5(3):357-365.
Holthuijzen, A.M.A., T.L. Sharik and J.D. Fraser. 1987. Dispersal of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) into pastures: An overview. Canadian Journal of Botany 65:1092-1095.
Hong, S.C., H.J. Cho, K.H. Bae, S.H. Suh and B.C. Lee. 1988. Vegetation ecological studies of Songin - bong virgin natural and tongkumi Juniperus chinensis native land in Ulreung Island. Proceedings of Korean For. Soc. pp. 42-43 (in Korean).
IUCN. 1998. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Conifer Specialist Group, Ver 2.3.
Jang, S.O. 2005. Ecology and evolution of dioecy in Korea angiosperm. Sungshin Womens University Press, Seoul, Korea. pp. 1-61 (in Korean).
Kelly, P.E. and D.W. Larson. 1991. Dendroecological analysis of the population dynamics of an old-growth forest on cliff-faces of the Niagara Escarpment. Canada. Journal of Ecology 85:467-478.
Kim, B.H. 2000. The scientific survey of Donggang, Gwangwondo. pp. 1-267 (in Korean).
Kim, K.B. and G.D. Lee. 2008. A study on volcanic stratigraphy and fault of Ulleung-do, Korea. The Journal of Engineering Geology 18(3):321-330 (in Korean).
Kim, S.I. 1988. Taxonomic studies of genus Juniperus. J. Korean For. Soc. 77(3):338-350.
Kimura, M. and J.F. Crow. 1963. The measurement of effective population number. Evolution 17(3):279-288.
Kong, W.S. 1995. The distribution of conifers and taxads in time and space in the Korean peninsula. Journal of the Korean Geographical Society 30(1):1-13 (in Korean).
Korea National Arboretum and The Plant Taxonomic Society of Korea. 2007. A Synonymic List of Vascular plants in Korea. Korea National Arboretum. pp. 1-534 (in Korean).
Lee, J.H. 2005. An ecological approach for the effective conservation and management of forest vegetation in Ulleung island, Korea. Kyungpook National University Press, Daegu, Korea. pp. 1-166 (in Korean).
Marion, C. and G. Houle. 1996. No differential consequences of reproduction according to sex in Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae). American Journal of Botany 83:480-488.
Matthes-Sears, U. and D.W. Larson. 1995. Rooting characteristics of trees in rock: A study of Thuja occidentalis on cliff faces. International Journal of Plant Sciences 156(5):679-686.
Matthes U. and D.W. Larson. 2006. Microsite and climatic controls of tree population dynamics: an 18-year study on cliffs. Journal of Ecology 94:402-414.
Matthies, D., I. Bräuer., W. Maibom. and T. Tscharntke. 2004. Population size and the risk of local extinction: empirical evidence from rare plants. Oikos 105(3):481-488.
Nakai, T. 1918. Report on the vegetation of diamond mountains, Corea. The Government of Chosen. Seoul, Korea.
NIBR. 2012. Red data book of endangered vascular plants in Korea. NIBR. pp. 1-391 (in Korean).
Oh, G.W. and H.K. Lee. 1997. 2nd natural environment survey in Korea, Ministry of Environment. pp. 1-99 (in Korean).
Oostermeijer, J.G.B., M.W. Eijck. and J.C.M. Nijs. 1994. Offspring fitness in relation to population size and genetic variation in the rare perennial plant species Gentiana pneumonanthe (Gentianaceae). Oecologia 97(3):289-296.
Ortiz, P.L., M. Arista, and S. Talavera. 2002. Sex ratio and reproductive effort in the dioecious Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Celak. (Cupressaceae) along an altitudinal gradient. Annals of Botany 89:205-211.
Park, J.U. and S.K. Ryu. 1988. A study on the historical transformation of the east coastal foreat since the last glacial period. Forest Science 5:8-13.
Renner, S.S. and R.E. Ricklefs. 1995. Dioecy and its correlates in the flowering plants. American Journal of Botany 82(5): 596-606.
Shin, J.K., H.J. Kim, H.S. Shin, J.M. Chung and C.W. Yun. 2013. Community ecological characteristics of Juniperus chinensis L. forest in South Korea. J. of Korean Forest Society 102(4):587-600 (in Korean).
Song, J.H., K.H. Jang, S. D. Hur. 2010. Propagation of cutting method of a rare endemic Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii Henry in Korea. Korean J. Plant Res. 23(4):368-373.
Swetnam, T.W. and P.M. Brown. 1992. Oldest known conifers in the southwestern United States: temporal and spatial pat-terns of maximum age. pages 24-48 in old-growth forestsin the southwest and Rocky mountain regions: proceedingsof a workshop. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-213.
Ulleung-gun. 2007. Paper of Ulleung-gun, Ulleung-gun. pp. 1-1390 (in Korean).
Ursic, K.A., N.C. Kenkel and D.W. Larson. 1997. Revegetation dynamics of cliff faces in abandoned limestone quarries. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:289-303.
Vasek, F. 1966. The distribution and taxonomy of three western Junipers. Brittonia 18(4):350-372.
Vandepitte, K., H. Jacquemyn, I. Roldán-Ruiz and O. Honnay. 2010. Extremely low genotypic diversity and sexual reproduction in isolated populations of the self incompatible lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis) and the role of the local forest environment. Annals of Botany 105(5):769-776.
Vasiliauskas, S.A. and L.W. Aarssen. 1992. Sex ratio and neighbor effects in monospecific stands of Juniperus virginiana. Ecology 73(2):622-632.
Yampolsky, H. and A. Cecil. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3:1-62.
Yoon, S.O. and S.I. Hwang. 2009. The resconstruction of natural environment for the last glacial maximum around Korea and adjacent areas. Journal of the Korean Geo- morphological Association 16(3):101-112 (in Korean).
You, H.S. 2004. Geography of Korea-Gwangwon-do-, National Geographic Information Institute. pp. 1-641 (in Korean).
鄭台鉉. 1943. 朝鮮森林植物圖說. 朝鮮博物硏究會. 株式會社近 澤印刷所. pp. 12〜13.