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참나무 톱밥을 이용한 표고 지면재배 과정의 주요 미생물 군집 분석

Microbial community structures in the ground bed cultivation of Lentinula edodes using oak sawdust

초록

톱밥발효를 이용한 표고버섯의 지면재배방법은 적은 노동력을 소요하고 표고의 생산력을 증대시킬 수 있는 방법이다. 이 방법은 미생물에 의한 참나무 톱밥의 발효과정과 표고균사를 접종하고 생장시키는 과정의 두 단계로 나누어진다. 본 연구에서는 참나무 톱밥을 이용한 표고 지면재배과정의 각 단계에서 우점하는 주요 미생물을 확인하고 효율적인 표고버섯 재배를 위한 정보를 제공하고자 하였다. 발효과정이 진행되며 온도가 상승함에 따라 톱밥의 고온 세균의 비율은 10%에서 80%까지 증가하여 중온성 세균에서 고온성 세균으로 군집의 천이가 확인되었다. 16S rRNA 유전자를 이용한 T-RFLP 방법과 염기서열 분석 방법으로 참나무 톱밥 지면재배과정의 단계별 미생물 군집의 변화를 확인했다. 발효 전 참나무 톱밥시료에서는 중온성 세균인 Enterobacteriaceae 과의 세균이 우점(100%)하였고, 발효가 진행되며 Amycolatopsis (49.0%), Saccharopolyspora (26.5%) 등의 고온성 방선균으로 미생물 군집의 천이가 발생되었다. 특히, Amycolatopsis 속이 최고온도가 유지되는 발효과정 중에도 항상 우점한 결과를 고려하면 발효를 주도하는 미생물이라고 생각된다. 균사생장시기에서는 저온성 세균인 Leuconostoc이 우점(75.0%)하였다. 표고 균사의 활발한 성장을 위해서는 참나무 톱밥의 발효과정이 매우 중요하기 때문에 발효과정에서 우점한 고온성 방선균인 Amycolatopsis 속에 관한 다양한 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각된다.

Abstract

Ground bed cultivation method for shiitake mushroom (Phogo; Lentinula edodes) has been advanced to use the oak-sawdust composted by microorganisms. This method has some advantages in saving the labors and improving productivity. The aim of this study is to analyze microbial community in oak sawdust and to provide the information for efficient cultivation of shiitake mushroom. In process of composting, the proportions of thermophiles increased from 10% to 80%. This results show the microbial community succession from mesophilic bacteria to thermophilic bacteria. T-RFLP analysis and nucleotide sequencing of 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that the change of dominant bacteria coupled with shifts in each stages. The family of Enterobacteriaceae as a mesophilic bacteria were dominant (100%) in oak sawdust sample, but Amycolatopsis (49.0%) and Saccharopolyspora (26.5%) as a thermophilic Actinomycetes were dominant in the last day of composting. In hyphal growth stage, Leuconostoc (psychrophilic bacteria) was dominant (75.0%). The composting process of sawdust is very important for growth of mushroom mycelium. Therefore, there is need for the further study for the Amycolatopsis as thermophilic Actinomycetes.

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