The purpose of this paper is to investigate the rationale behind the transformation process of unique shophouse spatial organization in Phnom Penh. We selected 20 representative shophouses located in the Chinese district of Phnom Penh according to construction period. A qualitative study methodology was applied and field surveys were conducted that included interviews with residents, photographs, sketches, measurements, collecting historic photos, and cataloging maps. Selected cases were analyzed in terms of: basic house data, urban block analysis, and unit analysis. Cases were then classified into two types: private courtyard shophouse (PCS) and shared courtyard shophouse (SCS). PCS refers to shophouse typology that maintains most of the characteristics of early shophouses while being transformed into a modern multi-story apartment within a limited one bay plot. However, SCS refers to shophouses adapted from the indigenous forms of PCS that evolved into a multi-storey and multi-family housing typology that includes features that might have been adapted from Western apartment buildings such as sharing a big courtyard, staircase and corridors. We conclude that shophouses in Phnom Penh have positively adopted a Western building typology, adapted it to local traditions, and finally formulated a new building type that represent indicators of a modernization process gradually accepted by society.
Blancot, C., & Goldblum, C. (1997). Phnom Penh developpement urbain et patrimoine [Phnom Penh urban development and heritage ]. Paris: Aterlier Parisien d'Urbanisme et Institut Francaise d'Urbanisme [Aterlier Parisien of Urbanism and French Institute].
Charton, E. (1898). Le tour du monde [The travelling around the world ]. Paris: Libraire de L. Hachette [Library of L. Hachette].
Chen, V. F. (1998). The encyclopedia of Malaysia: Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press.
Heritage Mission. (2011). Enhancement and the protection of Phsar Chas area, Siem Reap, Cambodia. Phnom Penh: Heritage Mission, Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts.
Igout, M. (2001). Phnom Penh then and now. Bangkok: White Lotus.
Jeon, B. H., Lee, K. A., & Joo, S. H. (2006). Continuance and transformation of urban houses in Hanoi in terms of attic and courtyard. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea: Planning & Design, 22(11), 241-252.
Ju, S. R., & Omar, S. B. (2010). A typology of modern housing in Malaysia. International Journal of Human Ecology, 11(1), 109-119.
Kien, T. (2008). "Tube house" and "neo tube house" in Hanoi: A comparative study on identity and typology. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 7(2), 255-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.7.255
Molyvann, V. (2003). Modern Khmer cities. Phnom Penh: Reyum Publishing.
National University of Singapore, Centre for Advanced Studies in Architecture, & University of Malaya, Centre for Conservation Studies and Records. (2011). Muar: Tributaries and transitions. Singapore: Center for Advanced Studies in Architecture & Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Conservation Studies and Records.
Nguyen, M. T. (2010). Hanoi architecture: An informal notebook of a jumble city. Hanoi: Science and Technics Publishing House.
Osborne, M. (2008). Phnom Penh: A cultural and literary history. Oxford: Signal Books.
Ross, H. G., & Collins, D. (2006). Building Cambodia: New Khmer architecture 1953-1970. Bangkok: The Key Publisher.
Tan, D. (2006). La diaspora Chinoise du Cambodge: Histoire d'une identite recompose [Overseas Chinese in Cambodia: History of an identity redials ] (Unpublished master's thesis). Institute d'Etudes Politiques de Paris [Paris Institute of Political Studies], Paris, France.
Wakita, Y., & Shiraishi, H. (2010). Spatial recomposition of shophouses in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 9(1), 207-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.9.207
Weinberger, N. (2010). The shophouse as a tool for equitable urban development: The case of Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.