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보호동기이론을 적용한 나트륨 과다섭취에 따른 위험성 및 나트륨 섭취 감소 방안의 효과성에 대한 부산·경남 지역 남녀 대학생들의 인식 비교 연구

A Comparative Study on the Awareness of Health Risks and the Risk Reduction Measures Related to Sodium Intake between Female and Male University Students in Busan and Gyeongnam: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a gender difference in motivating university students to decrease their sodium intake and to identify effective motivating factors. Within the protection motivation theory (PMT) framework, a survey questionnaire was developed to measure participants' perceptions on the severity of and the vulnerability to risk of serious diseases due to the high sodium intake, as well as the effectiveness (response efficacy) and the ability to perform preventive measures (self-efficacy). Behavioral intentions on five specific practices (checking nutrition label, consuming more fruits and vegetables, consuming less soups, avoiding spicy and pungent food, purchasing less instant or restaurant foods) related to decreasing sodium intake were also included. A total of 294 usable response data were collected from university students (92 male, 202 female) in Busan and Gyeongnam in June 2015 and analyzed using IBM SPSS 22. Severity was the highest (4.04) PMT factor followed by response efficacy (3.72), self-efficacy (3.42), and vulnerability (3.26). Compared to male students, female students thought that the threat was more severe (t=6.035, p<0.001) and reducing sodium intake would be effective to prevent serious illnesses (t=4.724, p<0.001), but their vulnerability and self-efficacy perceptions were not different from male students. Among the five items measuring behavioral intention, female students were more likely to increase fruits and vegetables consumption (t=3.811, p<0.001), while male students were more likely to avoid spicy and pungent foods (t=2.336, p=0.020). Based on findings of this study, the recommended strategy to effectively motivate university students to lower their sodium consumption level is the development of campaign focused on increased vulnerability perception, response efficacy, and ease of practicing preventive measures instead of emphasizing the severity of the consequences.

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참고문헌 (26)

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