Evaluating the performance of R&D Activity is complicated because it is hard to quantify the R&D results unlike the traditional manufacturing or service industries. Recently, to overcome this, process-focused evaluation methods applying the philosophy of quality into R&D environment have been introduced. However, these quality activities are mainly conducted without feedback system after the evaluation work is done. The aim of this study is to present a R&D quality diagnosis framework to obtain the improvement opportunities from R&D process perspective. The research is designed as follows : First, R&D standard process and R&D quality elements are derived from a literature review. Second, the diagnosis objects are obtained by investigating the R&D quality elements at each R&D steps. Third, a two-dimensional diagnosis model, which enables the objective measurement of the 'system compatibility' and 'accomplish level', is presented. The proposed method can provide an effective way to find opportunities for efficient quality improvement of R&D process.
R&D 품질요소는 R&D 수행 과정의 다양한 활동 중 R&D 성과물의 품질에 영향을 미치는 활동으로 정의할 수 있다(Jayawarna and Pearson, 2001). 1990년대 미국에서 연방자금을 지원받는 R&D에 대한 품질보증 요구가 시작됨에 따라(Roberts, 1996), 많은 연구기관과 연구자들에 의해 R&D 품질보증의 요소와 보증 절차에 대한 연구가 수행되기 시작하였다.
국내외 대표적인 R&D 조직들의 품질보증시스템의 유형 중 ‘연구품질요소’와 ‘R&D 표준 프로세스’는 무엇을 의미하는가?
‘연구품질요소’는 연구개발 품질보증을 위해 고려해야할 세부 활동들을 의미하며, ‘R&D 표준 프로세스’는 연구개발 과정을 몇 개의 세부 단계로 구분하고 각 단계에서 수행해야 할 업무를 정립하는 것이다
(2013)은 국내외 대표적인 R&D 조직들의 품질보증시스템의 유형을 분석한 결과, ‘연구품질요소 중점적 관리’,‘R&D 표준 프로세스 수립 및 실행’, ‘R&D 종료 단계에서의 품질수준 평가’ 로 각기 다른 3가지 유형이 존재함을 밝혔다. 자세히 살펴보면 ‘연구품질요소’는 연구개발 품질보증을 위해 고려해야할 세부 활동들을 의미하며, ‘R&D 표준 프로세스’는 연구개발 과정을 몇 개의 세부 단계로 구분하고 각 단계에서 수행해야 할 업무를 정립하는 것이다. ‘연구품질요소’와 ‘R&D 표준 프로세스’ 유형은 서로 다른 방법으로 연구개발 품질보증에 접근하고 있다.
Balachandra, R. and Friar, J. H. (1997), Factors for Success in R&D Projects and New Product Innovation : A Contextual Framework, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 44(3), 276-287.
Bremser, W. G. and Barsky, N. P. (2004), Utilizing the balanced scorecard for R&D performance measurement, R&D Management, 34(3), 229-238.
Cho, Y.-R., Lee, S.-J., and Yoon, J.-W. (2012), A customized framework for assessing R&D process : Product, service and technology, Journal of the Korean Society for Technology Management & Economics, 20(2), 109-134.
Cooper, R. G. (1994), Perspective Third-Generation New Product Process, Journal of Innovation Management, 11(3), 3-14.
Cronemyr, P. and Witell, L. (2010), Changing from a product to a process perspective for service improvements in a manufacturing company, The TQM Journal, 26-40.
Crosby, P. C. (1985), Quality without tears : the art of hassle-free management, McGraw-Hill, NY, USA.
DAPA. (2010), Regulation for Defense Acquisition, Defense Acquisition Program Administration, Seoul, Korea.
Do, N.-C. (2012), Product Data Model for Supporting Integrated Product, Process, and Service Design, Journal of the Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers, 38(2), 98-106.
Drongelen, Inge, C. K. and Cook, A. (1997), Design principles for the development of measurement systems for research and development processes, R&D Management, 27(4), 354-357.
Drucker, P. F. (1986), Innovation and Entrepreneurship : Practice and Principles, Harper & Row, NY, USA.
EFQM.(European Foundation for Quality Management), (2012), EFQM Framework for Innovation Agencies, European Foundation for Quality Management, UK.
Francis, P. H. (1992), Quality in R&D : Putting quality into the R&D proceess, Research Technology Management, 35(4), 16-23.
Goldenson, D. and Herbsleb, H. (1995), After the Appraisal : A Systematic Survey of Process Improvement, Its Benefits, and Factors that Influence Success, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, PA, USA.
Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., and Lee, H.-U. (2000), Technological learning, Knowledge management firm growth and performance : an introductory essay, Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 17(3-4), 231-246.
Hong, S.-W. (2003), The Effect of Process Maturity on the Performance of Industrial R&D Projects, IE Interfaces, 16(3), 362-374.
Humphrey, W. S. (1987), Characterizing the Software Process A Maturity Framework, Software Engineering Institute, Pennsylvania, USA.
ICH(International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use) (1996), Guideline for Good Clinical Practice, ICH, USA.
ISO9001(International Organization for Standardization) (2015), The Process Approach in ISO 9001 : 2015, Switzerland.
Jayawarna, D. and Pearson, A. W. (2001), The role of ISO9001 in managing the quality of R&D activities, The TQM Magazine, 13(2), 120-128.
Jeong, W.-C. and Moon, S.-Y. (2007), Introduction to execution strategy and case study for R&D Process Innovation, Samsung SDS Consulting Review, 1, 83-101.
Kaplan, R. S. and Norton, D. P. (2005), The Balanced Scorecard : Measures That Drive Performance, Harvard Business Review, Harvard Business School, USA.
KIER(Korea Institute of Energy Research) (2013), Regulation of Research Quality Assurance, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea.
Kim, D.-H., Kang, M.-S., Ji, D.-H., and Choi, S.-J. (2013), R&D Quality Assurance : General Types and Key Quality Elements, Journal of Korean Society for Quality Management, 41(4), 1-19.
Kim, H.-W., Ko, J.-H., and Chung, E.-S. (2015), A Study on The Effective Technology Readiness Assessment Method for System Development Project, Journal of the Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers, 41(2), 144-149.
Krapp, M. (2001), Quality assurance in research and development : an insoluble dilemma?, Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 371(6), 704-713.
Kusunoki, K., Nonaka, I. and Nagata, A. (1998), Organizational Capabilities in Product Development of Japanese Firms : A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Findings, Organization Science, 9(6), 699-718.
Lee, H.-J. (2014), Development of R&D Quality Performance Indices, Master's degree, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Korea.
Lee, J.-S., Shin, W.-S., Lee, H.-J., and Bae, Y.-Y. (2014), Developing Quality Performance Indices for Research and Development, in : 2014 Spring Korea Quality Congress, Busan BEXCO, Korea, 55-56.
LG Eletronics (2016), Available : http://www.lge.co.kr/lgekr/company/about/rnd/rnd_busi2.jsp [Accessed : 01 October 2016].
Lotte R&D Center (2016), Available : http://www.lotternd.com/KOR/rndGuide/introduce2.asp?fDepth1&sDepth3&tDepth2 [Accessed : 01 October 2016].
MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency) (2004), The Medicines for Human Use(Clinical Trials) Regulations 2004, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, UK.
Miller, R. (1994), Quality in research : an empirical study, Technovation, 14(6), 381-394.
Miller, R. (1995), Applying Quality Practices to R&D, Research Technology Management, 38(2), 47-54.
MSIP A(Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning). (2016), 2017 Government R&D Investment Plan, National Science & Technology Council.
MSIP B(Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) (2016), Regulation for Government R&D Management, National Science & Technology Council.
MSIP(Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) (2014), Standard Manual for Government R&D, National Science & Technology Council.
National Index System. (2016), Available : http://www.index.go.kr/potal/main/EachDtlPageDetail.do?idx_cd1330 [Accessed : 10 October 2016].
Park, J.-G., Sung, K.-S., and Kim, H.-S. (2003), Development of R&D Standard Processes for E Research Institute, Journal of Korean Society for Quality Management, 31(4), 127-149.
Paulk, M. C. (1996), Effective CMM-Based Process Improvement, in : 6th International Conference on Software Quality, Ottawa, Canada, 226-237.
Prajogo, D. I. and Hong, S.-W. (2008), The effect of TQM on performance in R&D environments : A perspective from South Korean firms, Technovation, 28(12), 855-863.
Prajogo, D. I. and Sohal, A. S. (2002), The relationship between TQM practices, quality performance, and innovation performance : An empirical examination, International Journal of Quality & Reliability, 20(8), 901-918.
Prajogo, D. I. and Sohal, A. S. (2006), The integration of TQM and technology/R&D management in determining quality and innovation performance, International Journal of Management Science, 34(3), 296-312.
R&D Systems (2016), R&D Systems a bio-techne brand Quality Manual, R&D Systems(R), USA.
Roberts, G. W. (1996), Quality systems guidelines for research, The TQM Magazine, 8(1), 43-44.
Salomo, S., Weise, J., and Gemunden, H. G. (2007), NPD Planning Activities and Innovation Performance : The Mediating Role of Process Management and the Moderating Effect of Product Innovativeness, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 24(4), 285-302.
SEHD(Scottish Executive Health Department) (2006), RESEARCH GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK for HEALTH AND COMMUNITY CARE 2nd Edition, Scottish Executive Health Department, Scotland.
Seol, S.-S., Oh, S.-K., and Park, H.-W. (2012), Technology Valuation, Bobmunsa, Korea.
Spanos, Y. E. and Lioukas, S. (2001), An examination into the causal logic of rent generation : contrasting Porter's competitive strategy framework and the resource-based perspective, Strategic Management Journal, 22(10), 907-934.
Taylor, R. and Pearson, A. (1994), Total Quality Management in Research and Development, The TQM Magazine, 6(1), 26-34.
University of Aberdeen & NHS Grampian (2015), Research & Development Quality Manual, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.
Wikipedia (2016a), Available : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-Model [Accessed : 02 October 2016].
Wikipedia (2016b), Available : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_engineering [Accessed : 02 October 2016].
Wikipedia (2016c), Available : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IDEF0 [Accessed : 02 October 2016].
Yoon, B.-G., Lee, K.-E., Lee, S.-J., and Yoon, J.-W. (2014), Development of an R&D process model for enhancing the quality of R&D : comparison with CMMI, ISO and EIRMA, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 26(7-8), 746-761.
Yum, B.-J., Seo, S.-K., Yun, W.-Y., and Byun, J.-H. (2014), Trends and Future Directions of Quality Control and Reliability Engineering, Journal of the Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers, 40(6), 526-554.