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Purpose: To differentiate adenoviral pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF) from acute Kawasaki disease (KD) using laboratory tests before results of virus-real time polymerase chain reaction and ophthalmologic examination are obtained. Methods: Baseline patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were compared between 40 patients with adenovirus infection and 123 patients with KD. Results: The patients with adenovirus infection were generally older than those with KD (median: 3.9 years vs. 2 years, P=0.000). White blood cell and, platelet count, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels showed significant differences between the 2 groups, but the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels did not ($6.8{\pm}3.0mg/dL$ vs. $8.3{\pm}5.8mg/dL$, P=0.126). In the adenovirus infection group, the CRP levels were <1, <3, <10, and ${\geq}10mg/dL$ in 2 (5%), 3 (7.5%), 30 (75%), and 5 patients (12.5%), respectively. The cutoff NT-proBNP level was 265 pg/mL. Discrepancy was defined as CRP and NT-proBNP levels of ${\geq}3$ or <3 mg/dL, and <265 or ${\geq}265pg/mL$, respectively. Among the 35 patients with adenovirus infection whose CRP levels were ${\geq}3mg/dL$, 29 (82.9%) showed a discrepancy. Conversely, of the 103 patients with KD whose CRP levels were ${\geq}3mg/dL$, 83 (80.6%) showed no discrepancy. Between the groups, a significant difference in discrepancy rate was observed (P=0.000). None of the patients with adenovirus infection had CRP and NT-proBNP levels of <3 mg/dL and ${\geq}265pg/mL$, respectively. Conclusion: With a sensitivity of 82.9% and a specificity of 80.6%, CRP and NT-proBNP levels may differentiate between adenoviral PCF and acute KD.

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