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Abstract

Objective: Complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of four Thai indigenous chicken varieties, including Pra-dhu-hang-dam (PD), Leung-hang-khao (LK), Chee (CH), and Dang (DA) were explored for genetic diversity and relationships with their potential ancestor and possible associates to address chicken domestication in Thailand. Methods: A total of 220 complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of the four Thai indigenous chicken varieties were obtained by Sanger direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplicons of 1,231 to 1,232 base pair in size. A neighbor-joining dendrogram was constructed with reference complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of Red Junglefowl (RJF) and those different chicken breeds available on National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Genetic diversity indices and neutrality test by Tajima's D test were performed. Genetic differences both within and among populations were estimated using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Pairwise fixation index ($F_{ST}$) was conducted to evaluated genetic relationships between these varieties. Results: Twenty-three identified haplotypes were classified in six haplogroups (A-E and H) with the majority clustered in haplogroup A and B. Each variety was in multiple haplogroups with haplogroups A, B, D, and E being shared by all studied varieties. The averaged haplotype and nucleotide diversities were, respectively 0.8607 and 0.00579 with non-significant Tajima's D values being observed in all populations. Haplogroup distribution was closely related to that of RJF particularly Gallus gallus gallus (G. g. gallus) and G. g. spadiceus. As denoted by AMOVA, the mean diversity was mostly due to within-population variation (90.53%) while between-population variation (9.47%) accounted for much less. By pairwise $F_{ST}$, LK was most closely related to DA ($F_{ST}=0.00879$) while DA was farthest from CH ($F_{ST}=0.24882$). Conclusion: All 4 Thai indigenous chickens are in close relationship with their potential ancestor, the RJF. A contribution of shared, multiple maternal lineages was in the nature of these varieties, which have been domesticated under neutral selection.

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