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Abstract

Objective: Several studies have reported the development of new molecular methods for the prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility based on biomarkers aimed at overcoming the limitations of conventional male fertility analysis tools. However, further studies are needed for the field application of these methods. Therefore, alternative methods based on existing semen analysis methods are required to improve production efficiency in the animal industry. Methods: we examined the possibility of improving litter size in various pig breeds using combined Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence (H33258/CTC) staining. The correlation between field fertility and capacitation status by combined H33258/CTC staining in different ejaculates spermatozoa (n = 3) from an individual boar (20 Landrace, 20 Yorkshire, and 20 Duroc) was evaluated as well as overall accuracy. Results: The acrosome reacted (AR) pattern after capacitation (%) was positively correlated with the litter size of Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc pigs and the overall accuracy was 75%, 75%, and 70% in Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc pigs, respectively. The difference (${\Delta}$) in AR pattern before and after capacitation was positively correlated with the litter size of Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc pigs and the overall accuracy was 80%, 65%, and 55% in Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc pigs, respectively. However, the difference (${\Delta}$) in capacitated (B) pattern before and after capacitation was negatively correlated with the litter size of Landrace pigs and the overall accuracy was 75%. Moreover, average litter size was significantly altered according to different combined H33258/CTC staining parameters. Conclusion: These results show that combined H33258/CTC staining may be used to predict male fertility in various breeds. However, the selection of specific efficiency combined H33258/CTC staining parameters requires further consideration. Taken together, these findings suggest that combined H33258/CTC staining may constitute an alternative method for predicting male fertility until such time as fertility-related biomarkers are further validated.

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