Objectives: The aim of this study was to reveal how collagenases (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1, 8, 13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) are expressed in immunohistochemistry of retrodiscal tissue in temporomandibular joint disorder patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 39 patients who underwent discoplasty or discectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was undertaken and expression levels of MMP-1, 8, 13, and TIMP-1 were evaluated. The status of internal derangement of disc, osteoarthritis, and joint effusion were analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Disc status observed during operation was also categorized. Results: The more severe disc derangement was observed on MRI, the more increased expression of MMPs and TIMP-1 appeared. Regarding MMP-13 expression, 86.7% of late-stage disc displacement patients showed grade II or III. Expression level of MMPs or TIMP was not statistically significant associated with joint effusion level. In perforation and/or adhesion groups, all patients showed grade II or III expression of MMP-13. Once perforation occurred, MMP-13 showed increased expression with statistical significance. Conclusion: MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression seem to be related to progression of osteoarthritis whereas MMP-8 does not seem to have a specific role with regard to temporomandibular joint disorders. TIMP-1 is considered to be partly related to internal derangement rather than osteoarthritis, but it is not significant.
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