This paper concerns a numerical investigation on the effect of construction sequence on three-arch (3-Arch) tunnel behavior. A three-arch tunnel section adopted in a railway tunnel construction site was considered in this study. A calibrated 3D finite element model was used to conduct a parametric study on a variety of construction scenarios. The results of analyses were examined in terms of tunnel and ground surface settlements, shotcrete lining stresses, loads and stresses developed in center column in relation to the tunnel construction sequence. In particular, the effect of the side tunnel construction sequence on the structural performance of the center structure was fully examined. The results indicated that the load, thus stress, in the center structure can be smaller when excavating two side tunnels from opposite direction than excavating in the same direction. Also revealed was that no face lagging distance between the two side tunnels impose less ground load to the center structure. Fundamental governing mechanism of three-arch tunnel behavior is also discussed based on the results.
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