Ground effect includes a reduction of induced drag, increase of lift, and nose-down moment during landing. These phenomena, occurring late in the landing maneuver, are considered to be of little significance because they tend to counteract and/or compensate in this respect. Even though it is unlikely to affect any flare profile variations appreciably, some pilots have reversed perception about such phenomenon and overestimate during landing. It is becoming a negative factor and is making an adverse effect on landing maneuver. This study examines the perception of ground effect of large aircraft pilots, reviews literature regarding ground effect, and makes suggestions that pilots can correctly recognize and respond to the effect during landing flare maneuvers.
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