Among 545 surgically treated Graves' disease patients, 17 were found to have coexisting thyroid neoplasms. Of these 17 patients, 11 turned out to have thyroid carcinomas. These patients could be divided into 2 groups; Group I with a diffusely enlarged gland with a clinically palpable nodule (n = 6) and Group II without a palpable nodule (n = 5). In Group I, 4 patients were diagnosed by preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology, and the remaining 2 by intraoperative frozen-section examination. In Group II, none of the patients were suspected of any concurrent thyroid carcinoma preoperatively, and only 2 were identified by intraoperative frozen-section examination. Thus, 8 of the 11 patients were diagnosed preoperatively or intraoperatively. These observations suggest that in all patients with Graves' disease and concurrent thyroid nodules, the suspicion of associated malignancy may be raised. And also, fine needle aspiration cytology in every case of Graves' disease with a palpable nodule and intraoperative frozen-section examination of the suspicious lobe in the cases of non-palpable nodules appear worthwhile in detecting a concurrent thyroid carcinoma.
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