ObjectivesThe prognosis of IDDM is mainly dependent on complicated diabetic nephropathy which is probably determined by both metabolic abnormalities and genetic predisposition. Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) regulates systemic and renal circulations through angiotensin II formation and kinins metabolism. The insertion(I)/deletion(D) polymorphism in intron 16 of ACE gene is strongly associated with ACE levels, and subjects homozygote for deletion (genotype DD) have the highest plasma values. Recently, it was reported that I/D polymorphism of ACE gene is associated with diabetic nephropathy in Caucasian IDDM patients. We studied the relationship between the ACE gene polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy in Korean IDDM patients.MethodsThe study population consisted of 59 IDDM patients (duration> 5yrs) and 107 control subjects. IDDM subjects were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of diabetic nephropathy (with nephropathy: n=31, without nephropathy: n=28). After extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes, PCR was performed using the sense primer (5′-GCC CTG CAG GTG TCT GCA GC-3′) and anti-sense primer (3′-TGC CCA TAA CAG TGC TTC ATA-5′), respectively. The PCR products were electrophoresed in 2% agarose gels, and DNA was visualized directly with ethidium bromide staining.ResultsFrequencies for II, ID and DD genotypes were similar in IDDM subjects and controls (23:19:17 vs 49:41:17, p=0.142) and derived allele frequencies for I and D alleles were similar in both groups (0.551:0.449 vs 0.649:0.351, p=0.098). The ACE genotype distributions were not different in diabetic subjects with or without nephropathy (12:9:10 vs 11:10:7, p=0.78) and derived allele frequencies were also similar (0.532:0.468 vs 0.571:0.429, p=0.81).ConclusionThe I and D allele frequency in our controls was different compared to ACE allele frequencies of Caucasian populations, but very similar compared to those of Chinese or Japanese subjects. We found that I/D polymorphism of ACE gene is not implicated in the diabetic nephropathy of Korean IDDM patients and may be explained by ethnic differences.
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