The efficacy of the fine needle aspiration biopsy and cytological examination (FNABC) under ultrasonographic (US) guides for the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis was assessed. In one hundred and one patients with a neck mass or masses, tuberculous lymphadenitis has been proved by FNABC. US disclosed the physical characteristics of the masses: All the cases that involved two or more lymph nodes were multiple lesions. Eighty lesions (79.1%) were multiregional, and in 19 cases (18.8%), bilateral neck was involved. The posterior triangle of the neck was the most prevalent site (N = 69, 68.3%). Ninety two cases (90.9%) were hypoechoic lesions and 9 (9.1%) showed mixed echo patterns. There was no hyperechoic lesion (p < 0.001). The sensitivity of FNABC was 77.2% and the specificity was 99.0%. The diagnostic accuracy was 85.0%. There was no complication during the procedure. FNABC for the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis is a safe, convenient procedure and has a relatively high specificity. The limitation of FNABC, the low sensitivity, seemed to be compensated by US examinations.
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