The authors analysed bone marrow findings of sixteen cases of culture proven typhoid fever to reveal the pathologic changes according to the disease stage. The most frequent finding was chronic granulomatous inflammation (eight cases). Infection (bacteria) associated hemophagocytic syndrome (four cases), reactive marrow (two cases), and non specific findings (two cases) were also encountered. Granulocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis appeared at the early stage and was followed by infection (bacteria) associated hemophagocytosis and granuloma in proliferative stage. In lysis (late) stage, granulomatous inflammation was noted. However, resolution of granulomatous inflammation was not distinct. Some nuclear debris and phagocytosis were remarkable in well-formed granulomas. Thrombocytopenia was the most remarkable peripheral blood finding at the time of biopsy. Anemia, leukopenia, and pancytopenia were also observed in descending order.
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