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Does Improved Attention Induced by Caffeine Intake Affect Olfactory Function

Abstract

Objectives. Past several studies have proven that caffeine facilitates attentional enhancement by acting as an adenosine antagonist once it is absorbed by the body, resulting in improved psycho-behavioral function. Modern clinical olfactory function tests are usually assessed by psychophysical tests but due to a paucity of data, the influence of enhanced attention by caffeine on olfactory function still remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare results of cognitive function (attention) and olfactory function before and after caffeine administration in order to analyze effects of caffeine on olfactory function in normosmic subjects.Methods. This study enrolled 49 participants of Konkuk University Hospital with a mean age of 27.7 years who had patent olfactory clefts and no olfactory dysfunction from May 2015 to February 2016. Subjects were restrained from caffeine 10 hours before the test. On day 1, participant’s subjective olfactory function was evaluated before and after uptake of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee using visual analog scale (VAS) score, minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) measured by acoustic rhinometry, and the Korean version of Sniffin’ Stick II (KVSS II). Evaluation of participant’s attentional degree was measured by d2 test. On day 2, the same procedure was carried out with counterpart substance. The type of coffee initially administrated was randomly selected.Results. After administration, caffeinated coffee resulted in significant attentional enhancement than decaffeinated coffee. Results of d2 test showed statistically significant differences in the parameters of total number of errors and omission errors. In both the caffeinated and decaffeinated groups, the patients showed slight increase in VAS score and nasal cavity area; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Also, caffeinated coffee intake compared to decaffeinated coffee intake showed no significant relevance to olfactory function.Conclusion. Caffeine may significantly improve attentional congnitive function, while not have acute effects on olfactory function.

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