C-Repeat/drought responsive element binding factor (CBF1/DREB1b) is a well known transcriptional activator that is induced at low temperature and in turn induces the CBF regulon (CBF-targeted genes). We have cloned and characterized two CBF1-like cDNAs, CaCBF1A and CaCBF1B, from hot pepper. CaCBF1A and CaCBF1B were not produced in response to mechanical wounding or abscisic acid but were induced by low-temperature stress at 4 degrees . When plants were returned to 25 degrees , their transcript levels of the CBF1-like genes decreased markedly within 40 min. Long-term exposure to chilling resulted in continuous expression of these genes. The critical temperature for induction of CaCBF1A was between 10 and 15 degrees . Low temperature led to its transcription in roots, stems, leaves, fruit without seeds, and apical meristems, and a monoclonal antibody against it revealed a significant increase in CaCBF1A protein by 4 h at 4 degrees . Two-hybrid screening led to the isolation of an homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) protein that interacts with CaCBF1B. Expression of HD-Zip was elevated by low temperature and drought.
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