Intestinal transplantation has been established as a treatment option for patients that suffer from intestinal failure with complications from total parenteral nutrition. It is still rapidly evolving and just reached a landmark of 1,000 cases worldwide. Intestinal allografts can be transplanted as isolated, combined with the liver or as a part of a multivisceral allograft. Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression regimens have been used universally with improved outcomes. Clinical outcome in intestinal transplantation has improved significantly over time, impacted by refinement of surgical technique and novel immunosuppression. However rejection, infection, and technical complications still remain the most difficult barrier to improve patient and graft survival.
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