Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies world wide. Several experimental treatments have been tested against HCC. Those are chemotherapy, high dose proton beam radiotherapy, external beam radiotherapy, cyberknife, antibody-directed therapy and immunotherapy. Neither single nor combination therapy have demonstrated any clear reproducible benefit in terms of overall survival. Tamoxifen and antiandrogen therapy were not effective in prolonging survival when tested in randomized controlled trial. The modern radiation therapy concept such as intensity-modulated, image-guided, and stereotactic body radiation therapy may show promising effects on HCC. The increasing promise of targeted drug therapy in cancer needs to be particularly pursued in the treatment of HCC, in which cytotoxic agents are not usually effective. Other approaches include hormonal manipulation, immunotherapy, and specific inhibition of angiogenesis or growth factors. These issues stress the need for basic research in carcinogenesis in general and HCC in particular.
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