Cerebral infarction is an uncommon complication in multiple myeloma with hyperviscosity. Serum hyperviscosity may cause a variety of clinical manifestations including bleeding from mucosal membranes, congestive heart failure, retinopathy, and various neurologic deficits. These manifestations have been attributed to the presence of large quantities of asymmetrical molecules of high molecular weight in the serum. We recently experienced a case of multiple myeloma with acute cerebral infarction, which caused by hyperviscosity, as an initial manifestation in IgG multiple myeloma, and reviewed the relevant literature of myeloma presenting with the stroke. A 68-yr-old woman abruptly developed hypesthesia and monoplegia in the left leg. The stroke confirmed by the brain MRI and MR angiography, which revealed acute infarction at the right anterior cerebral artery territory. On admission, routine blood tests showed a slight decrease in hemoglobin and a marked increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Peripheral blood smear, serum protein electrophoresis, serum visocity, and bone marrow aspiration showed that she had IgG multiple myeloma with hyperviscosity. She was treated by chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and discharged with the improved clinical condition.
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