This Study will be designed to established the legal policy of restriction and distributional justice of Genetic Technology. It is motivated by the rapid development of Biotechnology and its area human cloning and embryo stemcell research, genetic testing, gene therapy, xenon-transplantation. As genetic technology and other technologies relevant to human biology are developed, society will faced a host of complex ethical, legal, and social issues. One of the most complex sets of issues involves our choices over who will access to these technologies. Given the benefits that people will obtain from genetic technologies, people will not be able to satisfy their demand. Society has encountered shortages of supply of medical services in the past. Resent now certain conditions must be satisfied in order for someone to gain access to genetic technologies. Special social status motived people to pursue these genetic technologies of procreation. But the lower social classes did not have children in this fashion. More likely, it was because they could not afford to. There is a great concern that the mischiefs of genetic technology may outstrip its benefits. In addition, another question has been raised who should benefit from the development of genetic technology. Problems of distributional justice arise under the condition of scarce resources. Whether achievements of genetic research should be distributed according to need or ability-to-pay needs to be answered. The aim of the social survey is to investigate the perception of Korean citizens and scientist on genetic technology and distributional justice, specifically focusing on application and limit of genetic test and screening, gene therapy and genetic enhancement. This survey was carried out using telephone interview from April 20th to May 20th in 2004. A total of 1,004 citizens, 432 scientists were randomly sampled. The questionnaire consisted of 16 questions about overall impact of genetic technology, application of genetic test, potential for discrimination on the basis of genetic information, permissibility of and intent to use gene therapy, access to genetic technology, and so on. The major findings of this survey were as follows. First, 71.0% of the respondents perceived that the development of genetic technology would ensure healthier life whereas 17.8% were worried about its adverse effects. Second, 93.7% were concerned about social discrimination based on genetic information. Third, 69.5% agreed that profit-seeking should be restricted in bio-industry using genetic technology. Forth, 73.5% perceived that a cost-sharing scheme between patients and the government was required to ensure patients" access to genetic technology, and 21.9% claimed that the government should pay the costs. Fifth, 82.6% anticipated the advent of genetic class whereby citizens would be ranked based on genetic difference.
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