The purpose of this article is to shed light on the continuity and discontinuity of the colonial period into the 1960s by analyzing the process of building human resources and the introduction of technology in the 1950s. Korea’s economy went through turbulent times immediately after liberation. However, the Korean government and the U.S. Military Government in Korea prepared a relatively systematic training program to fill the technical void. This training policy that provided technicians and skilled laborers was begun under a directive of the U.S. Military Government Office, but Koreans who had accumulated technical and administrative abilities during the colonial period led the effort. This systematic policy entailed: 1) sending people abroad in order to cultivate highly skilled technicians; 2) implementing license examinations to verify diverse skills learned from various regions; and 3) short-term training in order to secure a stable supply of skilled laborers. The U.S. Military Government Office reconfigured school education, resulting in a rapid expansion in the number of science and engineering students who graduated starting in the mid- 1950s. Raw materials and partially finished products increased until the mid- 1950s and played an important role in industrial rebuilding. In conclusion, this paper sheds light on the introduction of technology since the mid-1950s in preparation for full-scale industrialization in the 1960s. The establishment of human resources and the introduction of technology can be considered a legacy of colonial days in terms of the system and main manager, but it was also a process of creating a new Koreanized system of supplying human resources via vocational education, dispatch of highly skilled technicians, and the introduction of technology.
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