Although balloon angioplasty was initially limited to simple, focal lesions in peripheral arteries, the application of balloons in conjunction with stents, stent-grafts, laser-light, and advanced pharmacotherapies has allowed for widespread implementation of endovascular treatment, regardless of disease distribution or degree of ischemia. Further refinement of guidewires, sheaths, and adjunctive medications has allowed for traversal of even the longest lesions and has promoted technical success. In Korea, increasing numbers of endovascular therapies are being applied to iliac and femoral occlusive lesions by radiologists, vascular surgeons, and cardiologists. Although surgery remains the principal treatment for patients with lower limb ischemia, physicians must assess the benefits and risks associated with various treatment options, including endovascular therapy.
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