Hemoptysis leading to airway obstruction by blood clot is a serious and potentially lethal condition in pediatric patients because of the unpredictable course and technical difficulty of managing small airways. An 11-month-old male patient with a contact burn on his left foot was intubated uneventfully during induction for general anesthesia. After 15 minutes, we noted blood in his endotracheal tube along with high airway pressure and desaturation. Immediate suction was performed, and the oxygen saturation recovered, but the airway pressure and small exhaled tidal volume were unchanged. We had difficulty differentiating endotracheal tube obstruction from bronchial spasm at that time. We successfully managed the endotracheal obstruction by extubation with removal of the blood clot and reintubation after the diagnosis was made using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. We review the etiology and management of airway obstruction and hemoptysis in the operating room.
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