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스토킹 행위의 형사법적 규제와 스토킹 행위의 유형화에 대한 고찰

Criminal Legal Control of Stalking and Typology of the Stalking

Abstract

In "90s the stalking(or harassment) became increasingly the epidemic phenomenon. The stalking had long history in the criminal justice systems of western countries. But it has remained without being noticed by the social scientists and psychiatrists for a long while since 19th century. The tragic death of Rebecca Schaeffer called the mass media"s attention and the stalking became a plague in 21st century. Many stalking cases are relatively trivial, while others end in rape, brutal assault, or murder. The parliaments of many countries made the anti-stalking laws for fighting stalker and harassment. In many states of the USA some anti-stalking legislations were struck down by the supreme courts because of its breach of constitutional law. Some failure of anti-stalking legislations are thought to be rooted in its traditional perspective of penal laws. The penal law usually places its focus on the infringement of individuals rights which took place in past. The penal law requires some illegal action and actual bodily harms as a contents of criminal behavior. However the stalking behaviour or harassment has the various contents including some legal action and trivial mischief. In many cases stalking behavior has no actual harm from the perspective of others, but it could amount to very serious psychiatric harm. Traditional perspective of criminal justice system can no longer faces the new type of criminal behavior. In order to combat against the stalking behavior the law enforcement and criminal justice system needs some scientific perspectives obtained from the recent sociological empirical research and psychological analysis. Recent psychological researches show the typology of stalking, behavior which focuses on history between the stalkers and his victims. Some psychological researches emphasize the various management methods according to the typologies of stalkers and stalking victims. The law enforcement system must introduce the various management methods according to the typology in its legislations and its enforcement.

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