Goal: We present an approach to provide awareness to the harmful ionizing radiation generated during X-ray-guided minimally invasive procedures. Methods: A hand-held screen is used to display directly in the user's view information related to radiation safety in a mobile augmented reality (AR) manner. Instead of using markers, we propose a method to track the observer's viewpoint, which relies on the use of multiple RGB-D sensors and combines equipment detection for tracking initialization with a KinectFusion-like approach for frame-to-frame tracking. Two of the sensors are ceiling-mounted and a third one is attached to the hand-held screen. The ceiling cameras keep an updated model of the room's layout, which is used to exploit context information and improve the relocalization procedure. Results: The system is evaluated on a multicamera dataset generated inside an operating room (OR) and containing ground-truth poses of the AR display. This dataset includes a wide variety of sequences with different scene configurations, occlusions, motion in the scene, and abrupt viewpoint changes. Qualitative results illustrating the different AR visualization modes for radiation awareness provided by the system are also presented. Conclusion: Our approach allows the user to benefit from a large AR visualization area and permits to recover from tracking failure caused by vast motion or changes in the scene just by looking at a piece of equipment. Significance: The system enables the user to see the 3-D propagation of radiation, the medical staff's exposure, and/or the doses deposited on the patient's surface as seen through his own eyes.
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