Abstract Videos recorded with infrared camera traps placed in petroleum contaminated areas of the Peruvian Amazon have shown that four wildlife species, the most important for indigenous peoples’ diet (lowland tapir, paca, red-brocket deer and collared peccary), consume oil-contaminated soils and water. Further research is needed to clarify whether Amazonian wildlife's geophagy can be a route of exposure to petrogenic contamination for populations living in the vicinity of oil extraction areas and relying on subsistence hunting. Highlights First evidences prove that Amazonian wildlife consume petroleum-contaminated soil. Geophagy may emerge as an important exposure route to petrogenic pollution. It is urgent to assess the health risks for populations relying on subsistence hunting. There are substantial gaps in our knowledge of the health impacts of oil extraction.
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