Abstract Background Comparative and cost-effectiveness research develops knowledge on the everyday effectiveness and value of treatments and care delivery models. Purpose To describe comparative and cost-effectiveness research; identify needed competencies for this research; identify federal funding; and describe current training opportunities. Methods Published recommended competencies were reviewed. Current federal funding and training opportunities were identified. A federally funded training program and other training opportunities are described. Discussion Fourteen core competencies were identified that have both analytic and theoretical foci from nursing and other fields. There are multiple sources of federal funding for research and training. Interdisciplinary training is needed. Conclusion Comparative and cost-effectiveness research has the opportunity to transform health care delivery and improve the outcomes of patients. Nurses, as clinicians and scientists, are in a unique position to contribute to this important research. We encourage nurses to seek the needed interdisciplinary research training to participate in this important endeavor. We also encourage educators to use the competencies and processes identified in current training programs to help shape their doctoral programs. Highlights Nurses have an opportunity to transform health care with comparative and cost-effectiveness research. Fourteen core competencies were identified that have both analytic and theoretical foci from nursing and other fields. There are multiple sources of federal funding for research and training. Interdisciplinary training is needed.
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