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Abstract Introduction The aim was to investigate temporal variation in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and factors influencing low HRQL, in patients with asthma. Material and methods Questionnaire data on patient characteristics and the mini-Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (mini-AQLQ) scores from two separate cohorts of randomly selected Swedish primary and secondary care asthma patients, in 2005 (n = 1034) and 2015 (n = 1126). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance with adjustment for confounders compared mini-AQLQ total and domain scores in 2005 and 2015. Multivariable linear regression analyzed associations with mini-AQLQ scores. Results The mean Mini-AQLQ scores were unchanged between 2005 and 2015 (adjusted means (95% CI) 2005: 5.39 (5.27–5.33) and in 2015: 5.44 (95% CI 5.32 to 5.38), p = 0.26). Overweight (regression coefficient 95% CI) (0.21 (−0.36 to −0.07)), obesity (−0.34 (−0,50 to −0.18)), one or more exacerbations during the previous six months (−0.64 (−0.79 to −0.50)), self-rated moderate/severe disease (−1.02 (−1.15 to −0.89)), heart disease (−0.42 (−0.68 to −0.16)), anxiety/depression (−0.31 (−0.48 to −0.13)) and rhinitis (−0.25 (−0.42 to −0.08)) were associated with lower HRQL. Higher educational level (0.32 (0.19–0.46)) and self-reported knowledge of self-management of exacerbations (0.35 (0.19–0.51)) were associated with higher HRQL. Conclusions HRQL in Swedish patients with asthma is generally good and unchanged during the last decade. Overweight, obesity, exacerbations, self-rated moderate/severe disease, heart disease, depression/anxiety and rhinitis were associated with lower HRQL, and high educational level and knowledge on self-management with higher HRQL. Highlights Questionnaire data on mini-AQLQ was obtained in two cohorts of patients with asthma. Mini-AQLQ scores did not change significantly between 2005 and 2015. Several risk factors were identified as risk factors for lower HRQL. High education and knowledge of self-management were associated with higher HRQL.


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