The increasing emergence of antibiotics resistance is of global concern. Finding novel antimicrobial agents and strategies based on synergistic combinations are essential to combat resistant bacteria. We evaluated the activity of garvicin KS, a new bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus garvieae. The bacteriocin has a broad inhibitory spectrum, inhibiting members of all the 19 species of Gram-positive bacteria tested. Unlike other bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria, garvicin KS inhibits Acinetobacter but not other Gram-negative bacteria. Garvicin KS was tested in combination with other antimicrobial agents. We demonstrated synergy with polymyxin B against Acinetobacter spp. and Escherichia coli, but not against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Similar effects were seen with mixtures of nisin and polymyxin B. The synergistic mixtures of all three components caused rapid killing and full eradication of Acinetobacter spp. and E. coli. In addition, garvicin KS and nisin also acted synergistically against Staphylococcus aureus, indicating different in modes of action between the two bacteriocins. Both bacteriocins showed synergy with farnesol, and the combination of low concentrations of garvicin KS, nisin and farnesol caused rapid eradication of all the S. aureus strains tested. Its broad inhibitory spectrum, rapid killing, and synergy with other antimicrobials makes garvicin KS a promising antimicrobial.
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