Background/AimsBrain and bone metastases are common in patients with lung cancer. The development of metastasis is associated with poor survival in lung cancer patients. Although tumor morphologic features on radiographs are routinely assessed for differentiation between benign and malignant lung nodules, they are not used to predict metastasis. We assessed morphologic features of pulmonary adenocarcinomas with brain/bone metastasis on computed tomography (CT) to identify related factors for metastasis.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of initial chest CT findings (size, type of contour, percentage of necrosis, enhancement, presence or absence of calcification, and air cavity) from 2009 to 2010 of patients with brain or bone metastasis and compared the findings with those of patients without metastases.ResultsIn total, 128 patients were included (78 men, 52 women; mean age 69 years; range, 36 to 87). Nineteen patients had brain metastases and 32 had bone metastases. Morphologic features associated with brain metastasis included size ≥ 50 mm (odds ratio [OR], 3.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 9.17; p = 0.013), necrosis ≥ 30% (OR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.62 to 12.55; p =0.002), and presence of calcification (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.16 to 13.55; p = 0.035). Morphologic features associated with bone metastasis included necrosis ≥ 30% (OR, 4.639; 95% CI, 1.98 to 10.82; p < 0.001) and T 3 to 4 stage (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.07 to 6.00; p = 0.031).ConclusionsWe found that necrosis ≥ 30% was associated with pulmonary adenocarcinoma with brain and bone metastasis at initial chest CT morphologic feature. To validate these results, further research should be conducted.
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