Abstract AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was tested by simultaneous uniaxial tensile tests and X-ray diffraction measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures. The decrease in temperature reduced the stacking fault energy, which increase the rate of the martensitic transformation. This led to an intensive formation of martensite during the early stage of deformation, and consequently induced a discontinuous yielding. The tensile strength at cryogenic temperature was higher than that obtained at room temperature, while the steel ductility did not change significantly. This behavior could be associated with the Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) effect since the formation of α′ martensite increased the work hardening rate. In addition, the threshold strain for the onset of discontinuous yielding seems to be related to the lattice microstrain of austenite and the intensive formation of martensite. Highlights The decrease in temperature changed the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. Dynamic recovery is lower at cryogenic temperature than at room temperature. The threshold strain is related to the intensive formation of α′ martensite. The transformation rate is highest at around 35% of martensite at low temperatures.
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