사과의 주요 방화곤충인 머리뿔가위벌(Osmia cornifrons)과 뿔가위벌(O. pedicornis)을 사과원에서 방사량별로 방사하여 방화활동과 그 효과를 조사한 결과, 영소출입봉수는 머리뿔가위벌과 뿔가위벌 공히 750마리 방사구와 1,000마리 방사구가 같은 수준이었으며, 500마리 방사구보다는 많았다. 방화활동수와 화분수집봉수도 머리뿔가위벌과 뿔가위벌 공히 750마리 방사구와 1,000마리 방사구가 같은 수준으로 500마리 방사구보다 많았다. 영소회수율은 방사량별로 상관없이 머리뿔가위벌이 뿔가위벌보다 높은 수준이었다. 생산물의 무게와 과경 그리고 당도는 머리뿔가위벌과 뿔가위벌 500마리 방사구, 750마리 방사구 그리고 1,000마리 방사구 공히 같은 수준이었으나, 정상과 비율은 머리뿔가위벌 1,000마리 방사구가 41.3%로서 가장 높았고, 머리뿔가위벌 750마리 방사구와 뿔가위벌 750마리 방사구, 1,000마리 방사구가 32~33%로 그 다음이었으며, 머리뿔가위벌 및 뿔가위벌 500마리 방사구가 21~27%로서 가장 낮았다. 따라서 관행의 3,300㎡ 면적에 500마리(암수비율 3:7 또는 무작위)를 방사하는 것보다는 750마리(암수비율 3:7) 이상을 방사하는 것이 정상과 비율 상승을 통한 고품질 사과생산 방법인 것으로 조사되었다.
Osmia cornifrons and O. pedicornis are a cavity-nesting solitary species used mainly as an apple pollinator in Korea. To elucidate the characteristics of those bees for the efficient the pollination of agricultural crops, we investigated the distribution, the number of cocoons per straw, sex ratio, and characteristics of cocoon at different locations in 2010. We collected four species of Osmia spp. consisting of O. cornifrons, O. pedicornis, O. taurus and O. satoi in Yeongwol, Bonghwa and Yechon locations. O. pedicornis was the dominant species, which accounts for 59.6% to 76.4% in the three locations. The mean number of Osmia spp. was varied in different 3 locations. In the number of cocoons per bamboo straw, there were from 7.6 to 8.5 in O. cornifrons and from 6.8 to 7.1 in O. pedicornis at one side straw, and from 16.3 to 16.5 in O. cornifrons and from 13.3 to 13.5 in O. pedicornis at both sides straw. The sex ratio of Osmia spp. were from 1:1 to 1: 2.8 in O. cornifrons and from 1:2.8 to 1:5.5 in O. pedicornis. The sex ratio of O. cornifrons and O. pedicornis was different in 3 locations. The female and male cocoons of O. cornifrons were the long ellipticalshaped and grey-brown color. The width, length and weight of the female cocoon were 5.6±0.6mm, 10.2±0.8mm and 89.5±20.0mg, respectively. The width, length and weight of the male cocoon were 5.0±0.4mm, 9.0±0.6mm and 62.1±11.3mg, respectively. The female and male cocoons of O. pedicornis were the long elliptical-shaped and polished dark-brown color. The female cocoon had the width of 6.5±0.6mm, length of 12.9±1.0mm and weight of 89.5±20.0mg. In case of the male cocoon, the width, length and weight of were 5.0±0.4mm, 9.0±0.6mm and 151.5±29.4mg, respectively. In both species of O. cornifrons and O. pedicornis, the cocoon size of the females was significantly larger than that of the male. Between those two species, the latter had a relatively bigger size than the former.
머리뿔가위벌을 사과에 더욱 효과적으로 사용하기 위하여 중생종 '홍로'와 만생종 '후지'에서 머리뿔가위벌의 영소활동과 화분매개효과를 조사하였다. 그 결과, '후지'에서의 영소활동이 '홍로'보다 2.5배 많았다. 영소율과 증식률에서 '후지'가 '홍로' 보다 각각 1.5배, 3.8배 높았다. 품종에 따른 화분매개효과를 조사한 결과, 중심화결실률에서 '후지'가 '홍로'보다 1.6배 높았다. 과실의 품질에서 사축과율은 '후지'가 '홍로'보다 2.5배 낮았고, 사과종자의 수는 1.9배 많았다. 이에 대한 원인을 밝히기 위해 개화기 기상환경과 머리뿔가위벌의 활동량에 대한 상관관계를 분석한 결과, 머리뿔가위벌의 활동에 영향을 미치는 주된 요소는 온도로 나타났다 (R2 = 0.578). '후지'(평균 17.4 ~ 최고 24.1℃)의 개화기 기온은 '홍로'(평균 12.5 ~ 최고 20.2℃)보다 4 ~ 5℃ 높았기 때문에 '후지'에서 영소활동과 화분매개효과가 '홍로'보다 큰 것으로 생각된다. 따라서 조생종 '홍로'에서는 머리뿔가위벌보다 기상환경에 영향을 적게받는 뒤영벌과 같은 화분매개곤충을 사용하는 것이 권장되며, 만생종 '후지'에서는 머리뿔가위벌의 사용이 가능할 것으로 판단된다. 본 연구는 사과 재배 농가에게 사과의 안정적인 생산을 위한 중요한 정보로 사용될 수 있다. 아울러 기후변화에 인하여 머리뿔가위벌의 화분매개활동이나 증식률이 변할 수 있다는 결론은 식생과 곤충상에 변화에 대한 근거로 활용할 수 있을 것이다.
We investigated nesting behavior and pollination efficiency as functions of the sex ratio and density in released bees to determine standard quantities of Osmia cornifrons per 2,000m2 for apple pollination. The nesting behavior, reproduction, fruit set and shape of O. cornifrons varied significantly with the released sex ratio of O. cornifrons. A female : male sex ratio of 1 : 2 was resulted in a 3.4 to 6.7 fold higher than other sex ratio in a nesting behavior. Releasing only females resulted in a 1.2 to 6.7-fold higher trap nesting rate than other sex ratios. A ratio of 1 : 2 resulted in a 1.2-fold nesting rate, which was slightly higher than other nesting rates. Releasing only males resulted in a 2.4-fold greater amount of fruit set in non-pollinated sites. A sex ratio of 1 : 2 gave a slightly higher shape index and a 1.2 to 1.6-fold lower asymmetric index than other sex ratios. Therefore, an efficient sex ratio of O. cornifrons to release is 1 : 2 for apple pollination. The nesting behavior and reproduction varied significantly with the release density of O. cornifrons females. Releasing 400 female bees resulted in 1.8 to 3.5-fold higher nesting behavior and a 4.3 to 7.8-fold higher trap-nesting rate than other numbers of female bees. However, there was no significant difference between female release numbers in fruit set, and 100 to 200 females gave a slightly higher shape index than 400 females. Thus, we determined that 200 females should be released per 2,000m2 and that the sex ratio of females to males should be 1 : 2.
To elucidate optimal environment conditions of nesting sites, we investigated effects of location, direction, altitude and sites of nest trapping on the rate of trap nested of Osmia spp. The direction of placed nest traps rate don’t affect in the rate of trap nested of Osmia spp. A higher altitude appeared to correspond to a higher the rates of trap nested. In case of sites of placed nest trap, the rate of trap nested in nest trap of mud wall of old house was 3 fold higher than that of apple orchard. In conclusion, rates of trap nested in Osmia spp. affected by altitude, placed site and bee plants. To butter understand the ecological characteristic of Osmia cornifrons, we investigated life span and developmental characteristic. Average egg period was 3.2 days and larval period was 13.3 days. Pupal period consist of prepupal stage was 82 days. Averyage longevity of adult terminated diapause was 21.8 for female and 24.4 days for male. Total life span in laboratory was 122.4 days for female and 121.8 days for male. The sex ratio for female and male was 1 to 1.4. respectively. Moreover, the larva growth appeared to be high correlation in head width, body weight and length.
To understand a information on vitellogenin and the oocyte development, we cloned a cDNA encoding vitellogenin from O. cornifrons. O. cornifrons vitellogenin (OcVg) cDNA contains 5,477 bp with an open reading frame of 1,783 amino acid residues, and has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 200 kDa and a pI of 6.55. OcVg possesses four consensus (RXXR/S) cleavage sites and has conserved DGXR and GL/ICG motifs in the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the OcVg cDNA showed a 66% identity with Megachile rotundata, Phylogenetic analysis showed that OcVg clustered with Megachilidae. The expression profile of OcVg mRNA during development revealed that OcVg was first detected in the pupal stage and was continuously detected during the adult stage. the secretion of OcVg protein showed different patterns during wintering and after diapause. There is a significant interaction between ovarian development and the expression level of OcVg mRNA and the secretion level of OcVg protein, and their are stage-specific in the O. cornifrons female.
Additionally, we describe the molecular cloning and antimicrobial activities of a serine protease inhibitor from O. cornifrons (OcSPI). OcSPI consists of 405 amino acid residues and contains a potential reactive center loop (RCL) region in its C-terminus. Recombinant OcSPI was produced as a 64 kDa glycoprotein in baculovirus-infected insect cells and exhibited inhibitory activity against chymotrypsin. Additionally, OcSPI demonstrated inhibitory activity against microbial serine proteases, such as subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against tissue plasminogen activator, thrombin, or plasmin. Recombinant OcSPI bound directly to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Beauveria bassiana and exhibited antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Our results demonstrated the antimicrobial functions of OcSPI and suggest a role for OcSPI in the immune response of O. cornifrons bees
Japanese hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is an important pollinator of apple in spring. Since it overwinters as diapause adult, temporal synchronization of bee emergence and apple blooming is critical. We experimented the temperature and relative humidity effect on the emergence of O. cornifrons adults using cold-stored population. Experimental conditions were 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C, and 33, 43, and 52% RH. relatively. The adult emergence was early in higher temperature. Relative humidity did not influence the emergence period and the survival as well. The male emerged earlier than the female. The mortality was higher in 10°C (60%) and 35°C (40%) while it remain relatively constant (5∼10%) in other temperatures. Based on this results, further development of adult emergence phenology model will help better timing of the Japanese hornfaced bee use in apple pollination.
This study was examined the pollinating activity and effect of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia cornifrons released on prunus blossoming season in the prunus net-house. In the results, the pollinating peak times of A. mellifera and O. cornifrons were recorded at 2p.m. and that of B. terrestris was recorded at 10a.m.. Three kinds of visiting time on a prunus flower of A. mellifera had 3.6sec. with honey collectors, 2.2sec. with pollen collectors and 5.6sec. with honey plus pollen collector, respectively. But B. terrestris and O. cornifrons were collected pollen only. Fruit setting rates by three bees were not different with 9.9~10.4%, however those by three bees were 2% higher than that of natural pollination. When we surveyed the fruit qualities by pollinating activity of three bees, the weight of a fruit, the length of a fruit by three bees released were higher than those of the natural pollination. But the sugar content a fruit, the pH a fruit, the hardness a fruit by pollinating activity of three bees were not nearly different. Fruit product amount per 10a and amount of market fruit per 10a by three bees were 4.5∼6.1% higher than those by natural pollination. However the income by A. mellifera, and O. cornifrons released were 1% and 3% higher than artificial pollination and B. terrestris.
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