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북한 종교 정책에 따른 신앙생활 실천방안

Measures for Faithful Practices according to Religion Policy of North Korea

신학과 실천 no.42 , 2014년, pp.749 - 770  

The purpose of this study is to propose measures for faithful practices with which Korean church help believers in North Korea in their faith from the missional perspective. For this purpose this study presents definition of religion in North Korea, constitutional ground of religion in North Korea and self-reliance ideology, change in religion policy for Christianity and measures for faithful practice according to religion policy in North Korea.The constitutional ground for religion in North Korea is that North Korea seems to partially permit freedom of religion, but in practice it is not allowed. The attitude of North Korea toward religion is that they have regarded religion as disturbing to socialist revolution since Korea's independence, and they amended constitution and criminal law to partially permit religion for the purpose of construction of socialist revolution. As for the self-reliance ideology, North Korea regime specified in the preface of party's rules "Labor Party of North Korea is only directed by the great leader Kim Il Seong's self-reliance ideology and revolutionary ideology" at the 6th anniversary meeting in 1980, which defined the self-reliance ideology as an official ideology for politics in North Korea. In addition, Kim Jeong Il published an article titled "About Self-Reliance Ideology" on December 17, 1982, which substantiated self-reliance ideology from the philosophical perspective to establish the rationale to secure the status of Kim Il Seong and Kim Jeong Il.As for the change in the religion policy for Christianity, it may be divided into conciliation and repression period (1945-1950), oppression period (1950-1953), suppression period for underground church (1945-1971), camouflage of freedom of religion and propaganda period (1972-1998) and induction of economical support period (2000-present). During the conciliation and repression period, Christianity in North Korea had a strong political power. Since Kim Il Seong needed their tentative support to rule North Korea, they tried to convert deep-rooted Christians as well as repress them. During the oppression period, they regarded Christians as anti-revolutionary group and actively oppressed them. Thus Christians needed to gather as underground church. There was no official church so that they had to worship on the rice field during their break time. During the camouflage period, they searched underground Christians based on religion elimination policy but camouflaged that they have freedom of religion. During the propaganda period, a religion department was opened at Kim Il Seong University in 1988 and Christianity department was also opened in 1989, which was seemingly ground-breaking. However, North Korea still oppresses Christians. It is time for Korean church to help the believers in North Korea more actively. This article proposes some measures: First, measure using printed media; Second, measures using video media; Third, measures using culture and art; Fourth; measures using economic special zone; Fifth, measures using escapers from North Korea.

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