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중국문화 연구에서 ‘종교’를 다루기 위한 선행적 연구

Preliminaries for Addressing the Religion in the Study of Chinese Culture

중국어문학논집 no.89 , 2014년, pp.459 - 485  

This thesis has been done as a part of work seeking how to deal with 'religion' while studying and educating Chinese Culture. Although religion plays an important role on the formation and change of culture, it doesn't seem that there is any appropriate studying and education going on in the Chinese culture academy. In this respect, our research will provide significant discussion to the Chinese culture academy. To make the proper discourse of religion in Chinese culture academic field, we have two long term goal: First, we will argue the Confucianism as a religion. Through this argue, we expect Confucianism would be referred in Chinese religion discourse. Second, we will investigate whether Confucianism still do an effect on Chinese as religion even in 21 century. In this thesis, we researched the first part of the goal. The summary of our research so far is as follows. Confucianism in Chinese culture corresponds to Christian religion in the western country. It is a fundamental idea that has shaped Chinese' thought and action for 2,500 years. But Chinese culture scholars hesitate to admit Confucianism as religion. Because their definition of religion has a certain limitation. The definition of religion can be divided in a two way: a substantive definition and a functional definition. A typical example of a substantive definition is to consider religion as "the faith for the spiritual being"(Tylor, 1871). According to this definition, Confucianism is not religion. The good example of a functional definition is that of A. N. Whitehead. "A religion can be defined as a system of general truths which have the effect of transforming humanbeing’s character when they are sincerely held and vividly apprehended."(Whitehead, 1926[2003:166]). According to this definition, Confucianism has been working as religion for Chinese. When studying religion, religion scholars prefer a substantive definition and sociology scholars prefer a functional definition. For culture scholars, it is more useful to choose a functional definition when they research the conduct and the habit of a man. Whitehead(1926[2003]) divides lots of religions into the following 2 types, and describes how each religion functions for the formation of human character. One is communal religion and the other is rational religion. The culture of a region which mainly believes rational religion tends to stress individualism and low-power distance. On the contrary, the culture of a region which believes religion of the community takes on collectivism, high-power distance. Through this, we can presume that religion and culture has considerable correlations. The biggest achievement through the research is that we could invite Confucianism to the Chinese religion discourse field. Though Confucianism has actually functioned as religion, it has not been admitted as religion in the view of substantive definition. Futhermore, it is another achievement of this study to get a model with which we can analyze the religious property of Confucianism.

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