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발트슈테이나(Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna)의 정치적 활동 -30년 전쟁(1618-1648) 전후의 시기를 중심으로

Political Activities of Valdštejna -Focusing on the Period before and after the Thirty Year’s War(1618-1648)-

세계 역사와 문화 연구 no.36 , 2015년, pp.29 - 60  

Albrecht von Wallenstein(Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna) was born on 24 September 1583 in Hermanice, Bohemia, into a poor Protestant branch of Waldstein familie who owned Hermanice castle and seven surrounding villages. His mother Markéta died in 1593, his father Vilém in 1595. After the death of his parents, Wallenstein lived with his uncle, Jindřich Slavata of Chlum and Košumberk. In 1597, his uncle sent him to the Protestant Latin school at Goldberg in Silesia. On 29 August 1599 Wallenstein continued his education at the Protestant University of Altdorf near Nürnberg, where he was often engaged in brawls. In February 1600, Wallenstein left Altdorf and travelled around the Holy Roman Empire, France and Italy, where he studied at the universities of Bologna and Padua. In 1609, Wallenstein married Czech Lucretia of Viíkov, née Nekšová of Landek, who owned the towns of Vsetín, Lukov, Rymice and Všetuly. The Thirty Years’ War began in 1618 when the estates of Bohemia rebelled against Ferdinand of Styria and elected Frederick V, Elector Palatine, the leader of the Protestant union, as their new king. Unlike these common perspectives of Czech nobles Wallenstein associated himself with the cause of the Catholics and the Habsburg dynasty. Wallenstein, who offered his services, and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men during the Thirty Years’ War, to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. Presently he became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy and a major figure of the Thirty Years’ War. Over the course of the war Wallenstein’s ambitions and the exactions of his army had made him a host of enemies, both Catholic and Protestant princes and non-princes. Ferdinand II suspected Wallenstein of planning a coup to take control of the Holy Roman Empire. The Emperor’s advisors advocated dismissing him, and in September 1630 envoys were sent to Wallenstein to announce his removal. Several Protestant victories over Catholic armies induced Ferdinand to recall Wallenstein, who again turned the war in favor of the imperial cause. Dissatisfied with the Emperor’s treatment of him, Wallenstein considered allying with the Protestants. However, he was assassinated at Cheb in Bohemia by one of the army’s officials, Walter Devereux, with the emperor’s approval.(Catholic Kwandong University)

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