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문명담론과 독립협회의 정치체제, 그리고 러젠드르의 전제론

Politics of Contradictory Constitutional Discourse During the Year of 1898

韓國史學報 no.66 , 2017년, pp.199 - 227   http://dx.doi.org/10.21490/jskh.2017.02.66.199

19th century Korea was the age of contact in which Eastern and Western civilization clashed and infiltrated. Both knowledge and culture spread, collided and intermingled. The intellectuals of the Independent Club, which was baptized by 'civilization discourse', embraced Western ideas and political systems to plan and build a so-called civilized state. In this study, I tried to examine the political reform led by the Independent Club and 'Empire Reform' led by the imperial government in 1898 with the key words 'civilization discourse' and 'absolute monarchism'. As a result, various vocabularies in which Westerners represented Joseon was 'incompetence', 'corruption', 'authoritarian power', 'absolute poverty', 'backwardness' etc. were transferred and reproduced by the Korean intellectuals. In the summer of 1898, the Independent Club launched massive demonstration to reform the political system and openly advocate the adoption of the parliamentary system. This was to make Korea, a civilized country and meet with western standard, which meant the weakening of the Emperor's power. C.W. LeGendre, the political adviser to the Korean Government, was well aware of the reality and impact of the liberal civil rights movement that he had experienced in Japan in the past. He persuaded members of the Independent Club, such as Yun Chiho, not to go out on a radical basis or to make compromises by making plans for reforming the Central Committee(중추원) as an 'advisory body'. LeGendre also asserted the advantages of the absolute monarchy in the West, and tried to defend the rights of the Emperor. LeGendre's logic was, that the absolute monarchy was not a symbol of 'barbarism' nor 'backwardness', but rather an effective political system capable of promoting civilization and development. He also thought that it was suitable for Korean political culture. Moreover that the rights and freedoms of the people are better guaranteed by the absolute monarchy. The Emperor, inspired by LeGendre's logic, suggested an "advisory body," and late quelled down people's protests and demanded a parliamentary system. A year after that he proclaimed the constitution for absolute monarchy.

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