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논문 상세정보

고려 전시과의 운영과 영업전·구분전

The Operation of Jeonsigwa in the Goryeo Dynasty and Youngeopjeon․Gubunjeon

사학연구 no.131 , 2018년, pp.133 - 166   http://dx.doi.org/10.31218/TRKH.2018.09.131.133

Jeonsigwa(田柴科) is composed of youngeopjeon(永業田) and gubunjeon(口分田). Often expressed as jikjeon(職田) or youngeopjeon, jeonsigwa was specifically divided into youngeopjeon and gubunjeon. Youngeopjeon was called that way because it is land that is not reclaimed but inherited to the household as long as gwanjik(官職; official position) and jikyeok(職役; official work) are inherited, and therefore jikjeon. In other words, it was a land that became hereditary under conditions of succession to gwanjik and jikyeok. Therefore, the size of youngeopjeon has to be different depending on status and position, not everyone has the same area of youngeopjeon. On the other hand, the amount of gubunjeon was fixed. In the case of yangban(兩班) gubunjeon, above pum(品) 5 and pum 6․7 was set at 8gyeol(結), between pum 8 to pum 9 was set at 5gyeol. Unlike youngeopjeon, gubunjeon was paid in the event of a severance of government and office. If the gwanjik or jikyeok were not inherited, the government recalled youngeopjeon with only gubunjeon left, so gubunjeon had the characteristics of support for the bereaved family.In Goryeo, jeonsigwa was basically given to all who execute official duties. The land that was inherited by government or service was called youngeopjeon, and if the inheritance was cut off, the land was returned to the country, leaving only gubunjeon. And finally, gubunjeon was returned to the country. In this regard, the youngeopjeon and gubunjeon of Goryeo are similar to the operation of the youngeopjeon and gubunjeon systems which were conducted under the China’s gyunjeonje(均田制). The operating method that youngeopjeon is inherited and gubunjeon is returned to the country is similar to the Chinese system. However, there is a big difference that this method is managed by gwanjik and jikyeok. In the jeonsigwa(田柴科) system, conditions for succession to gwanjik and jikyeok were very important and these conditions also led to the continued or discontinued payment of jeonsigwa. The youngeopjeon and gubunjeon of Goryeo reveal the characteristics of the jeonsigwa(田柴科) system.

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