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논문 상세정보

데이터 경제 시대의 정보법제에 대한 소고― 데이터 경쟁법 개념에 대한 고찰을 중심으로

A study on data law in the age of data economy: focused on the consideration of the concept of data competition law

법학논총 , 2019년, pp.95 - 117   http://dx.doi.org/10.18018/HYLR.2019.36.2.095

After the economic value formation of various data-driven technologies, a character of the data as a property also receives attention. The value of the goods could be maximized when the goods are used or moved freely in the market. In data economy, most parts of the economic values would be derived from data transaction, hence free and fair flow of the data could be said to be a critical element. Korean data protection law consists mainly of the “Personal Information Protection Act”, supplemented by specific legislation in individual sectors. According to the law, the use of data is regulated on the one hand under the principle of the agreement-based collection and on the other hand within the scope of use. Although data use is partly taken into account in the area of financial and medical law, it is out of question that those laws consider the overall order or fairness of data transaction. In contrast, European data protection law (such as GDPR) is not just about a right of defense for individuals, but also about resolving the conflicts between the benefit of free portability of data and the advantage of privacy protection. The first sentence of Article 20 (1) of GDPR prescribes the right of data portability. In addition, the European Union has proposed, through Regulation (EU) 2018/1807, to establish a data market which is not subject to personal data protection law and to give the participants in the market the fundamental freedom of the data. Furthermore, the Federal Cartel Office in Germany has applied competition law to a company behavior, which leads to the collection of data, in terms of abuse and exploitation of consumer. Insofar as the character of the data is recognized as property rights or goods, it makes sense that data economy should be included in the scope of competition law in order to protect data transaction. The purpose of data competition law is to speed up the portability and use of data and improve consumer welfare by avoiding the monopoly of data and preventing a specific company from enjoying an unduly dominant market position with regard to data. For this, data portability should be guaranteed, taking into account its characteristics. In addition, it is necessary that criteria of dominant position and their misuse under competition law are changed according to the nature of the data. Furthermore, a supervision function of data transaction must be considered. Finally, conventional data protection should not be overlooked in terms of personality rights. In a nutshell, researches on data competition law should be continued so that the legal system does not hamper the progress towards data economy by harmonizing the public interest and the protection of personal data.

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