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정의적 영역 중심의 고등학교 환경 교재 개발

Development of An Instructional material for High School Environmental Education Emphasizing Affective Objectives

Abstract

The international environmental activities and environmental education began in 1970's. Environmental education in Korea was emphasized since the Forth National Curriculum. 'The Environmental Education Curriculum' will be separated as one of the most important parts in the Sixth National Education Curriculum in Korea. The purpose of this study was development. of 'Environmental Science' of high school appropriate to Sixth National Education Curriculum. First step was to state goals of environmental education in detail based on analysis of goals about environmental education in our country and other countries. Second was to analyse seven environments-related texts of Korea, America and England. Third, to measure how much environmental education has achieved in Fifth National Curriculum of Korea. Fourth, to develop a new environmental text of high school level. Fifth, to verify the effect of developed environmental text. The environmental part of 'Science I'(unit V. Life and Environments) and high school environments-related reference text(Survival and Environments) in Korea, American knowledges. American 'Environments' was stressed in many skills but they didn't include various teaching strategies. On the other hand, American 'Science-Technology-Society(S-T-S)' and British 'Science and Technology in Society(SATIS)' were stressed in knowledges and skills, and they included many teaching strategies and student actions. American 'S-T-S' was the only one stressed in values and attitudes. And all seven texts were not interested in behaviors and participations. To measure the achievement of environmental education by questionnaire, 497 high school students in total were selected from five different schools. Actually, most students had a positive thinkings and attitudes in their hearts about environmental problems, about environmental problems, but many of them did not take actions to solve environmental problems and to protect environments. The higher the score students got in 'knowledges and informations', the higher the score in 'skill'. It implies that learning of skills is based on learning of knowledges and informations about environments. On the other hand, much knowledges and information about environments has not always ensured positive thinkings and attitudes or active behaviors and participations to solve environmental problem. In view that ultimate aim of environmental education is forming responsible environmental behaviors and the goals of values and behaviors are as important as knowledges and skills. A new environmental text of high school level was developed and it was based on analysis of seven texts and environmental education in Fifth Korean Curriculum. This text have seven units, 1. Habitates : What're the meanings?, 2. Nuclear Energy : Can't be Avoid?, 3. Acid Rain : What're the Messages?, 4. Ethanol : Is this Future Fuel?, 5. Wastes : A New War!, 6. What're the National and Gloval Environmental education and avoided from the array of knowledges. Therefore included various teaching strategies and independent actions of students. 'Open-ended value learning' and 'free behavior learning' in text were special learning parts for aquisition of values and formation of behaviors. To verify the effects. of new developed environmental text, the direct learning was carried out by 286 students in total. Post test scores of experimental groups per each units were significantly higher than those of control groups from five different schools were as follows. For validity of selecting contents for units, 74% of respondent replied positively. For classification and presentation of four goal-groups, 90% replied positively in validity and 82%, in utility. For validity of various teaching strategies, 88% and for the degree of including student-centered independent actions, 86% replied positively, For importances and expected effects of 'open=ended value learning' and 'free behavior learning', showed positive responses respectively,

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