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Abstract

In Korea the concept of social support was first used as a research concept in nursing and has not had much application in the clinical field. Another problem is that research on social support has used a direct translation of the words “social support” into Korean as “sawhejuk jiji”. Three questions were posed to direct the re-search. 1) Is there a concept of social support in Korean society? 2) if so, what words or expressions are used to de-scribe it? 3) further, if so, how is social support structured and how does it function? In order to answer the research questions a three-step research methodology was used : The first step consisted of a literature review on re-search related to social support and on information on the background of, and the way of thinking re-lated to interpersonal relations among Korean people. The second step, which was done to identify whether there is a concept of social support in korean society, involved interviewing a sample of the population. The third step involved a panel discussion that included the members of the research team and three consultants, a sociologist, a philosopher and a scholor in korean literature. A review of the literature on interpersonal relationships in traditional korean society identified a four cirole structure that explains interpersonal relationships. The first circle with “me” at the center is the family but here “me” disappears into the “we” that is essential for a cooperative agricultural society. In the second circle are those close to “me” but outside the family. The third circle includes those with whom “I ” have infrequent but regular contact and with whom correct conduct is important. The last circle is all the people with whom “I” have nothing in common. They are excluded in interpersonal relationships. The literature on interpersonal relationships showed that within the traditional Korean society people lived in villages where most people were very familiar with each other. “Yun”, the social network established the connection and “Jung”, the feeling of affection increased with time as the connection was strengthened. In the traditional village psychological support was provided through “Mallaniki”, “Pumashi” and “Kae” with the latter two also providing material support. In modern Korea there are more informal and formal social networks, like social services and community activities on the formal level and cultural and leisure groups along with “kae’s on the informal level. But even with this modern variety of groups, most social support comes from informal networks that resemble the traditiorlal “Pumashi”, “Kai” md “Mallaniki”. The six member research team interviewed 65 people in order to identify whether there is a concept of social support and then analysed their responses. There were 20 different words describing the reception of the social support and these could be grouped into seven major categories : virtuous, fortunate, helped, supported, blessed, attached(receiving affection) and receiving (grace) benevolence. there were 27 words describing the act of social support which could be categorized into seven major categories : love, looking after, affection(attachment), kindness(goodness), faith, psychological help and material help. for the meaning of social support translated as “sawhe juk jiji” there were a total of 14 different answers which could be categorized into 3 major categories : help, agreement, and faith. In third step, the results of the literature review and the answers to the questions were discussed in a pannel. The results of the discussion led to the following definition of social support in Korea which is shaped like a the four sided pyramid on a base. Social support is the apex of the pyramid and four sides are made up of : “do-oom” (both emotional and material help), “jung” (connectedness, or relationship bound by affection, regard or shared common

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