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Abstract

The biodegradation experiment, the TOD analysis and the element analysis for dispersant, Bunker-A oil and Bunker-B oil were conducted to study the biodegradation characteristics of a mixture of Bunker-A oil with dispersant and a mixture of Bunker-B oil with dispersant in the seawater. The results of biodegradation experiment showed 1mg of dispersant to be equivalent to 0.26 mg of $BOD_5$ and to 0.60 mg of $BOD_{20}$ in the natural seawater. The results of TOD analysis showed each 1 mg of dispersant, Bunker-A oil and Bunker-B oil to be equivalent to 2.37 mg, 2.94 mg and 2.74 mg of TOD, respectively. The results of element analysis showed carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of dispersant to be $82.1\%,\;13.8\%,\;1.8\%\;and\;2.2\%$, respectively. Carbon and hydrogen contents of Bunker-A oil were found to be $73.3\%\;and\;13.5\%$, respectively, and carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents of Bunker-B oil to be $80.4\%,\;12.3\%\;and\;0.7\%$, respectively. Accordingly, the detection of nitrogen and phosphorus in dispersant shows that dispersants should be used with caution in coastal waters, with relation to eutrophication. The biodegradability of dispersant expressed as the ratio of $BOD_5/TOD$ was found to be $11.0\%$. As the mix ratios of dispersant to Bunker-A oil (3 mg/l) and a mixture of Bunker-B oil (3mg/l) were changed from 1 : 10 to 5 : 10, the biodegradabilities of a mixture of Bunker-A oil with dispersant and Bunker-B oil with dispersant increased from $2.1\%\;to\;7.2\%$ and from $1.0\%\;to\;4.4\%$, respectively. Accordingly, the dispersant belongs to the organic matter group of middle-biodegradability while mixtures in the mix ratio range of $1:10\~5:10$ belong to the organic matter group of low-biodegradability. The deoxygenation rate constant $(K_1)$ and ultimate biochemical oxygen demand $(L_0)$ obtained from the biodegradation experiment and Thomas slope method were found to be 0.125/day and 2.487 mg/l for dispersant (4 mg/l), respectively. $K_1\;and\;L_0$, were found to be $0.079\~0.131/day$ and $0.318\~2.052\;mg/l$ for a mixture of Bunker-A oil with dispersant and to be $0.106\~0.371/day$ and $0.262\~1.106\;mg/l$ for a mixture of Bunker-B oil with dispersant, respectively, having $1:10\~5:10$ mix ratios of dispersant to Bunker-A oil and Bunker-B oil. The ultimate biochemical oxygen demands of the mixtures increased as the mix ratio of dispersant to Bunker-A, B oils changed from 1 : 10 to 5 : 10. This suggests that the more dispersants are applied to the sea for the cleanup of Bunker-A oil or Bunker-B oil, the more decreases the dissolved oxygen level in the seawater.

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