The purpose of this study was to estimate the morphology and the size of permanent mandibular molar in Korean Adult. The 100 dental college students with a normal dentition and without any dental prosthesis and severe caries were selected for this study The subjects were taken impression to make study model. On the study model, the 5 dentists measured those sizes and estimated morphological structures with a calipers, a Boley gauge and a protractor. The results were as follows; 1. The clinical crown height, width, thickness and the other anatomical structures had symmetrical relationship between the left and right mandibular molar. 2. In the clinical crown height aspect, the buccal crown heights always were higher than the lingual crown height. The heights of the each surface, the buccal or lingual surface, were gradually decreased from the 1st molar to the 2nd molar and the difference on the buccal surface was higher than that on the lingual surface. 3. In the clinical crown width aspect, the mesiodistal measurement of the mandibular 1st molar was higher than that of the mandibular 2st molar. 4. In the clinical crown thickness aspect, the mesial buccolingual measurement was highest on the mandibular 1st molar and the distal buccolingual distance was lowest on the mandibular 2nd molar. This distal thickness of the mandibular molar always was higher than that of the mesial half. 5. The well-developed mesiobuccal groove of the 1st molar was observed more often than that of the 2nd molar. The buccal pit was also observed more frequently at the 1st molar, but the frequency(35%) was not high. 6. The occlusal type according to the number of cusp was almost 5-cusp(98%) in the 1st molar and was also 5-cusp(63%) in the 2nd molar. The frequency of the 6th cusp was 31% in the 1st molar and was 22% in the 2nd molar. The frequency of the 7th cusp was below 2of in the both teeth. 7. In the buccolingual intercuspal distance aspect of the mesial and distal half, the intercuspal distance of distal half was higher than that of the mesial half on the 1st and 2nd molar, but the difference on the 1st molar was higher than that on the 2nd molar. 8. The difference between the widths of the buccal and lingual half was 1.5mm in the 1st molar and 0.8mm in the 2nd molar. Therefore the lingual convergency of the occlusal surface was more higher in the 1st molar. 9. On the mandibular 1st and 2nd molar, the distobuccal external angle was more acute than the mesiobuccal external angle. But the mesiobuccal internal angle was more acute than the distobuccal internal angle. 10. When the mandibular molar was a 5-cusp type, the development of the distal cusp on the 1st molar was better than that on the 2nd molar. The difference between the cusps was around 0.4mm.
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