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Abstract

Statement of problem: The success of implants depends on intimate and direct contact of implant material on bone tissue and on functional relationship with soft tissue contact. Creation and maintenance of osseointegration depend on the understanding of the tissue's healing, repairing, and remodeling capacity and these capacities rely on cellular behavior. Altering the surface properties can modify cellular responses such as cell adhesion, cell motility, bone deposition, Therefore, various implant surface treatment methods are being developed for the improved bone cell responses. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the responses of osteoblast-like cells to surface-modified titanium. Materials and Methods: The experiment was composed of four groups. Group 1 represented the electropolished surface. Group 2 surfaces were machined surface. Group 3 and Group 4 were anodized surfaces. Group 3 had low roughness and Group 4 had high roughness. Physicochemical properties and microstructures of the discs were examined and the responses of osteoblast-like cells to the discs were investigated. The microtopography was observed by SEM. The roughness was measured by three-dimension roughness measuring system. The microstructure was analyzed by XRD, AES. To evaluate cell responses to modified titanium surfaces, osteoblasts isolated from calvaria of neonatal rat were cultured. Cell count, morphology, total protein measurement and alkaline phosphatase activities of the cultures were examined. Results and Conclusion: The results were as follows 1. The four groups showed specific microtopography respectively. Anodized group showed grain structure with micropores. 2. Surface roughness values were, from the lowest to the highest, electropolished group, machined group, low roughness anodized group, and high roughness anodized group. 3. Highly roughened anodized group was found to have increased surface oxide thickness and surface crystallinity. 4. The morphology of cells, flattened or spherical, were different from each other. In the electropolished group and machined group, the cells were almost flattened. In two anodized groups, some cells were spherical and other cells were flattened. And the 14 day culture cells of all of the groups were nearly flattened due to confluency. 5. The number of attached cells was highest in low roughness anodized group. And the machined group had significantly lower cell count than any other groups(P<.05). 6. Total protein contents showed no difference among groups. 7. The level of alkaline phosphatase activities was higher in the anodized groups than electropolished and machined groups(P<.05).

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