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The aim of this study was 1) to confirm the practical efficiency of a routine milk P4 monitoring system for postpartum reproductive management of a dairy herd, and 2) to evaluate the relationship between the blood metabolic profiles, milk quality and body weight of individual cows in the farm records, which may reflect the postpartum nutritional condition, and the time of postpartum resumption of ovarian activity of dairy cows. A total of 116 Holstein cows was used in the present study. First, during the period of Experiment 1, postpartum reproductive management based on weekly measured milk P4 concentration from individual cows was conducted. Compared with the reproductive records of the past two years without P4 monitoring, although the day from calving to first AI did not change, both the number of AI until pregnant (with P4; 1.9 times vs. without P4; 2.9 times) and the days open (with P4; 95.1 days vs. without P4; 135.8 days and 133.8 days) were significantly decreased. In Experiment 2, the measurement of blood constituents such as albumin, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, ammonia, glucose, total cholesterol, non-esterified, AST and $\gamma$-GTP was performed on the blood samples taken once approximately 14 days postpartum, to monitor both health and nutritional conditions. The milk constituent parameters, such as milk protein (MP), milk fat (MF), SNF and lactose, collected from the monthly progeny test of individual cows, were used to monitor the postpartum nutritional status. Furthermore, the data obtained from the routine measurements of body weight were used to calculate the rate of peripartum body weight loss. The resumption day of the postpartum estrous cycle was assumed from the milk P4 profiles of individual cows. There was no clear relationship between each parameter from blood examination and those from resumption time. However, the cows had low values of MP, and SNF, which significantly affected the resumption of the postpartum estrous cycle. Similarly, a higher rate of body weight loss indicated a significant delay (more than 1 month) in the resumption of the postpartum estrous cycle, compared with the groups that had a medium or lower rate of body weight loss. The results of the present study demonstrated that the implementation of routine milk P4 monitoring-based postpartum reproductive management, together with milk quality parameters and routine BW data available in field conditions may be utilized as a practical approach for increasing the postpartum reproductive efficiency of a high yielding dairy herd.

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