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Abstract

Salinity is one of the major limiting factors for agricultural productivity. In plants, accumulation of osmolytes plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress tolerance. Likewise, exclusion or compartmentation of $Na^+$ ions into vacuoles provides an efficient mechanism to avert deleterious effects of $Na^+$ in the cytosol. Both vacuolar and plasma membrane sodium transporters and $H^+-ATPases$ can provide the necessary ion homeostasis. A variety of crop plants were engineered with respect to the synthesis of osmoprotectants and ion-compartmentation, but there are other cellular pathways involved in the salinity responses that are still not completely explored. Genomics approaches are increasingly used to identify genes and pathway changes involved in salt-tolerance. The new knowledge may be used via guided genetic engineering of multiple genes to create crop plants with significantly increased productivity in saline soils. This review surveys how plants deal with high salt conditions and how salt tolerance can be improved by transgenic approaches.

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  1. 2008. "" BMB reports, 41(1): 86~91 

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