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Statement of problem : Titanium is widely used as an implant material lot artificial teeth. Also, studies on surface treatment to form a fine passive film on the surface of commercial titanium or its alloys and improving bioactivity with bone have been carried out. However, there is insufficient data about the biocompatibility of the implant materials in the body. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the precipitation of apatite on titanium metal is affected by surface modification. Materials and methods: Specimens chemically washed for 2 minute in a 1:1:1.5 (in vol%) mixture of 48% HF 60% $HNO_3$ and distilled water. Specimens were then chemically treated with a solution containing 97% $H_2SO_4$ and 30% $H_2O_2$ at $40^{\circ}C$S for 1 hour, and subsequently heat-treated at $400^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour. All specimens were immersed in the HBSS with pH 7.4 at $36.5^{\circ}C$ for 15 days, and the surface were examined with TF-XRD, SEM, EDX and XPS. Also, commercial purity Ti specimens with and without surface treatment were implanted in the abdominal connective tissue of mice for 4 weeks. Conventional aluminium and stainless steel 316L were also implanted for comparison. Results and conclusions : The results obtained were summarized as follows. 1. An amorphous titania gel layer was formed on the titanium surface after the titanium specimen was treated with a $H_2SO_4$ and $H_2O_2$ solution. The average roughness was $2.175{\mu}m$ after chemical surface treatment. 2. The amorphous titania was subsequently transformed into anatase by heat treatment at $400^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour. 3. The average thickness of the fibrous capsule surrounding the specimens implanted in the connective tissue was $46.98{\mu}m$ in chemically-treated Ti, and 52.20, 168.65 and $100.95{\mu}m$ respectively in commercial pure Ti, aluminum and stainless steel 316L without any treatment.

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