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논문 상세정보

가막만 표층퇴적물중 유기물량의 시.공간적 분포 특성

The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Organic Matter on the Surface Sediment and Its Origin in Gamak Bay, Korea

초록

가막만 표층퇴적물중 유기물량의 시 공간적 분포 특성 및 기원을 파악하고자 2000년 4윌부터 2002년 3월까지월간격으로 현장조사를 실시하였다. 강열감량(IL)은 $4.6{\sim}11.6%(7.1{\pm}1.6%)$, 화학적산소요구량(CODs)은 $2.25{\sim}99.26mgO_2/g-dry(30.98{\pm}19.09mgO_2/g-dry)$, 총 황화물량(AVS)은 $nd{\sim}10.29mgS/g-dry(1.02{\pm}0.58mgS/g-dry)$, 식물색소량은(phaeopigment) $6.84{\sim}116.18{\mu}g/g-dry(23.72{\pm}21.16{\mu}g/g-dry)$, 입자성유기탄소(POC)는 $5.45{\sim}23.24 mgC/g-dty(10.34{\pm}4.40C\;mgC/g-dry)$, 입자성유기질소(PON)는 $0.71{\sim}2.99mgN/g-dry(1.37{\pm}0.58mgN/g-dry)$, 함수율(water content)은 $43.1{\sim}77.6%(55.8{\pm}5.6%)$의 범위를 나타냈으며 펄 함량(mud content)은 모든 정점에서 95% 이상의 값을 나타냈다. 유기물질의 공간적인 분포는 북서 내만역, 만 중앙부와 동쪽해역 그리고 남쪽만 입구역으로 대별되어, 북서 내만역과 남쪽 만 입구역은 만 중앙부와 동쪽해역 및 백야도 인근해역보다 대부분 항목에서 높은 유기물 농도를 나타내었다. 특히 북서 내만역은 과도한 양식활동에 따른 과잉의 유기물 공급, 육상으로부터 생활하수 및 산업폐수 유입, 분지형태의 지형적 특성에 의한 물질의 장기체류로 유기오염이 매우 심각하게 나타났다. 그리고 그로인한 하계 수온약층에 의한 저층의 무산 소 환경이 형성되고 있다. 경시적인 변동양상은 북서 내만역과 남쪽 만 입구역에서 저수온기보다 고수온기에 주로 높은 농도를 보였다. 반면에 만 중앙부와 동쪽해역은 각 항목에서 변동양상의 일정한 규칙성은 보여지지 않으나 황 화물을 제외하면 주로 저수온기에 더 높은 농도를 나타내었다. 황화물 농도는 모든 정점에서 고수온기에 더 높게 나타났으며, 특히 만 중앙부와 동쪽해역은 화학적산소요구량이 $20mgO_2/g-dry$을 넘는 경우 고수온기를 중심으로 일시적인 황화물 증가양상이 나타났다. 가막만 표층퇴적물중 유기물질의 기원은 C/N 비가 평균 8 이하로, 육상기원보다 해양기원 유기물에 의한 것으로 나타났으나, POC/phaeopigment 비로부터 유기물 조성에 있어서 살아있는 식물플랑크톤보다 유기쇄설물이 우점하며, CODs/IL 비로부터 유기쇄설물은 해양자체 순환에 의해 생산되는 것보다 양식활동에서 발생하는 잉여사료와 생물의 배설물 등 인위적 활동에 의한 부분이 높은 것으로 추정되었다.

Abstract

A field survey on the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and origins of organic matter in surface sediments was carried out monthly at six stations in Gamak Bay, South Korea from April 2000 to March 2002. The range of ignition loss(IL) was $4.6{\sim}11.6%(7.1{\pm}1.6%)$, while chemical oxygen demand(CODs) ranged from $12.25{\sim}99.26mgO_2/g-dry(30.98{\pm}19.09mgO_2/g-dry)$, acid volatile sulfide(AVS) went from no detection(ND)${\sim}10.29mgS/g-dry(1.02{\pm}0.58mgS/g-dry)$, and phaeopigment was $6.84{\sim}116.18{\mu}g/g-dry(23.72{\pm}21.16{\mu}g/g-dry)$. The ranges of particulate organic carbon(POC) and particulate organic nitrogen(PON) were $5.45{\sim}23.24 mgC/g-dty(10.34{\pm}4.40C\;mgC/g-dry)$ and $0.71{\sim}2.99mgN/g-dry(1.37{\pm}0.58mgN/g-dry)$, respectively. Water content was in the range of $43.1{\sim}77.6%(55.8{\pm}5.6%)$, and mud content(silt+clay) was higher than 95% at all stations. The spatial distribution of organic matter in surface sediments was greatly divided between the northwestern, central and eastern areas, southern entrance area from the distribution characteristic of their organic matters. The concentrations of almost all items were greater at the northwestern and southern entrance area than at the other areas in Gamak Bay. In particular, sedimentary pollution was very serious at the northwestern area, because the area had an excessive supply of organic matter due to aquaculture activity and the inflow of sewage from the land. These materials stayed longer because of the topographical characteristics of such as basin and the anoxic conditions in the bottom seawater environment caused by thermocline in the summer. The tendency of temporal change was most prominently in the period of high-water temperatures than low-water ones at the northwestern and southern entrance areas. On the other hand, the central and eastern areas did not show a regular trend for changing the concentrations of each item but mainly showed a higher tendency during the low-water temperatures. This was observed for all but AVS concentrations which were higher during the period of high-water temperature at all stations. Especially, the central and eastern areas showed a large temporal increase of AVS concentration during those periods of high-water temperature where the concentration of CODs was in excess of $20mgO_2/g-dry$. The results show that the organic matters in surface sediments in Gamak Bay actually originated from autochthonous organic matters with eight or less in average C/N ratio including the organic matters generated by the use of ocean, rather than terrigenous organic matters. However, the formation of autochthonous organic matter was mainly derived from detritus than living phytoplankton, indicated the results of the POC/phaeopigment ratio. In addition, the CODs/IL ratio results demonstrate that the detritus was the product of artificial activities such as dregs feeding and fecal pellets of farm organisms caused by aquaculture activities rather than the dynamic of natural ocean activities.

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  2. Kim, Jeong-Bae ; Park, Jung-Im ; Jung, Choon-Goo ; Choi, Woo-Jeung ; Lee, Won-Chan ; Lee, Yong-Hwa 2010. "Physicochemical Characteristics of Seawater in Gamak Bay for a Period of Hypoxic Water Mass Disappearance" 海洋環境安全學會誌 = Journal of the Korean society of marine environment & safety, 16(3): 241~248 
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  6. U, Jeong-Hui 2011. "" 전원과 자원 = Rural resource, 53(4): 14~21 
  7. Kim, Sook-Yang ; Jun, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Young-Sik ; Lee, Yong-Hwa ; Kim, Byeoung-Man 2011. "Characteristics of Phosphate Flux at the Sediment-water Interface in Gamak Bay during the Hypoxic Water Mass" 한국환경과학회지 = Journal of the environmental sciences, 20(9): 1069~1078 
  8. Cho, Yoon-Sik ; Kim, Yoon-Bin ; Lee, Won-Chan ; Hong, Sok-Jin ; Lee, Suk-Mo 2013. "The Trophic State Assessment using Biochemical Composition in the Surface Sediments, the Southern Coast of Korea" 海洋環境安全學會誌 = Journal of the Korean society of marine environment & safety, 19(2): 101~110 
  9. Choi, Minkyu ; Kim, Hyung Chul ; Hwang, Dong-Woon ; Lee, In-Seok ; Kim, Young-Sook ; Kim, Ye-Jung ; Choi, Hee-Gu 2013. "Organic Enrichment and Pollution in Surface Sediments from Shellfish Farming in Yeoja Bay and Gangjin Bay, Korea" 한국수산과학회지 = Korean journal of fisheries and aquatic sciences, 46(4): 424~436 
  10. Hwang, Dong-Woon ; Kim, Pyoung-Joong ; Jeon, Sang-Back ; Koh, Byoung-Seol 2013. "Geochemical Characteristics of Intertidal Sediment in the Semi-enclosed Bays of the Southern Region of Jeollanam Province" 한국수산과학회지 = Korean journal of fisheries and aquatic sciences, 46(5): 638~648 
  11. Kim, Byeong Kuk ; Park, Sung Jin ; Lee, Moon Ock ; Lee, Yeon Gyu ; Kim, Jong Kyu 2014. "Characteristics of Sedimentary Environments in Gamak Bay based on Numerical Experiments" 한국해양환경ㆍ에너지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, 17(2): 70~80 

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