Surgical resection and reanastomosis has been the treatment of choice in patients with tracheobronchial stenosis. Recent development of bronchoscopic intervention has been replacing the role of surgery in these patients. After summarizing the upto date data of bronchoscopic intervention, the proper management of tracheobronchial stenosis will be presented. Bronchoscopic intervention would be much effective when performed under rigid bron- choscopy, due to the stable patients' condition and endoscopic view. The usual method of intervention includes ballooning, Nd-YAG laser resection, bougienation, mechanical airway dilatation, stenting and photodynamic therapy. Silicone stents are very effective in patients with tracheobronchial stenosis to maintain airway patency. Bronchoscopic intervention provided immediate symptomatic relief and improved lung function in most of patients. After airway stabilization, stents were removed successfully in 2/3 of the patients at a 12-18 months post-insertion. Less than 5% of patients eventually needs surgical management. Acute complications, including excessive bleeding, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum develops in less than 5% of patients but managed without mortality. Stent-related late complications, such as, migration, granuloma formation, mucostasis, and restenosis are relatively high but usually controlled by follow-up bronchoscopy. In conclusion, bronchoscopic intervention, including silicone stenting could be a useful and safe method for treating tracheobronchial stenosis.
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