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Abstract

Purpose: Computed tomography theoretically should improve detection of foreign bodies and provide more information of adjacent soft tissues. And the CT scanner and PACS program proved to be an excellent instrument for detection and localization of most facial foreign bodies above certain minimum levels of detectability. The severity of injury in penetrating trauma to the face, it is often underestimated by physical examination. Diagnosis of a retained foreign object is always critical. Methods: From March, 2005 to February 2008 a study was done with 200 patients who had facial trauma. Axial and coronal CT images were obtained with a General Electric(Milwaukee, Wis) 9800 CT scanner at 130 kV, 90 mA, with a 2-mm section thickness and a $512{\times}512$ matrix. Results: Axial and coronal CT images at various window widths should be used as the first imaging modality to detect facial foreign bodies. The attenuation coefficients for the metallic and nonmetallic foreign bodies ranged from -437 to +3071 HU. As a general rule, metallic foreign bodies produced more Hounsfield artifacts than nonmetallic foreign bodies, thus providing a clue to their composition. All of the metallic foreign bodies were represented by a single peak and had a maximum attenuation coefficient of +3071 HU. Of the nonmetallic foreign bodies, glass had an attenuation coefficient that ranged from +105 to +2039, while plastic had a much lower coefficient that ranged from -62 to -35. wood had the lowest range of attenuation coefficients: -491 to -437. Conclusion: The PACS program allows one to distinguish metallic from nonmetallic foreign bodies and to individually identify the specific composition of many nonmetallic foreign bodies. This program does not, however, allow identification of the specific composition of a metallic foreign body. We recommend this type of software program for CT scanning of any patient with an injury to the face in which a foreign body is suspected.

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